EV motors (electric vehicle) are basically DC Motors (Direct Current Motors) in most cases and the volt range vary from 96 to 192 volts. However AC Motors (Alternate Current Motors) are also used and in this case, the volt range can be anywhere between 240 and 300 volts. The most common electric car motors are the direct current motors because these motors are very easy to install and are usually not expensive as the alternate current motors. Apart from the simple setup, there is one more reason to rely on DC motors.
It is none other than the ability of electric motors to boost its wattage for a fraction of seconds, usually 5 times than its original output. Due to this, DC cars can have better acceleration for a very short span of time and this will help the car to perform better. However, this can not be done for so long as the engine will blowout. However, AC motors are installed in some cars because these engines can allow any industry specified motor to be used in the car which is quite advantageous.
The car's working principle is quite simple:
Drivetrain – In battery-powered cars, the working principle is very easy to understand. The car is driven by a motor (electric motor) which directly takes its energy from the cells. In hybrid cars, there are gasoline powered generators. Hybrid cars have a very sophisticated mechanism, which is not in the scope of this article. Coming back to electric cars, the straightforward mechanism avoid many components in between and it makes these cars more reliable.
Gear Box – Compared to gasoline powered vehicles, EV engines can not be pressured to produce more torque by switching to a lower gear. As we have seen earlier, DC motors can boost the power for a couple of seconds but car manufacturers do not use this option as a technique to boost the power. We can conclude that the gear box in an electric car engine is only to control speed. The working principle is also very different. It uses a resistor and the lower speed is achieved by putting higher resistance on engine.
Cells – Earlier, the car battery was the largest downside of electric cars because on average, these batteries weight around 500 to 1,000 pounds. These days, there is a sophisticated technology in branded cars but that technology does not come at a very reasonable price. Even the smallest cars with Li-ion battery setup will cost you a lot as the battery pack is quite expensive.
These are the major features of EV engines. Earlier, electric car batteries were identical to the car batteries (even today, many aftermarket electric car kits use the same) but these batteries will not last longer. The gel electrolyte based cells are expensive but long lasting too. If you want a reliable motor and battery setup for your investment, it is a good idea to stick to the latter.