Category: convertible

Activity Diagrams – Advantages, Disadvantages and Applications of Use

Activity diagrams describe the actual work flow behavior of a system in Information Technology. These diagrams are very similar to state Diagrams because activities are the actual state of doing something. These diagrams describe the actual state of activities of a system by showing all the sequence of activities performed. Also, these diagrams can show activities that are conditional or parallel.

When to Use: Activity Diagrams

Activity diagrams should be used in alignment with other modeling techniques like interaction diagrams and State diagrams. The main reason behind using these diagrams is to model the work flow behind the system being designed. these Diagrams are also useful for analyzing a use case by describing what actions need to take place and when they should occur, describing a complicated sequential algorithm and modeling applications with parallel processes.

Activity diagrams’ advantages:

  • UML modeling language included that these diagrams are normally easily comprehensible for both analysts and stakeholders.
  • In UML for the IT Business Analyst, “The activity diagram is the one most useful to the IT BA for depicting work flow [because] it is simple to understand-both for BAs and end-users.”
  • Since they are among the most user-friendly diagrams available, they are generally regarded as an essential tool in an analyst’s repertoire.
  • Additionally, as stated above, activity diagrams allow an analyst to display multiple conditions and actors within a work flow through the use of swimlanes. Swimlanes, however, are optional as a single condition or actor is normally displayed without them.

Activity diagrams’ disadvantages:

UML modeling language include that these diagrams have the potential to become overly complex because their user-friendly nature may lend itself to an all-inclusive description. In other words, since it is so simple to display the information related to the project, why not include all of it? When an analyst has a large project, creating a single, overly complex diagram can be a temptation.

However, as one author notes, “if you are using activity diagrams to define the structure of a work flow, you should not attempt to explore several levels of activity graphs down to their most ‘atomic’ level”. Instead, an analyst should try to present a new diagram for each work flow, or if more applicable, to use swimlanes to present different actors within the same work flow.

Another aspect of these diagrams is that they may not be used in lieu of a state diagram or sequence diagram because “activity diagrams do not give detail about how objects behave or how objects collaborate.” This is not a disadvantage per se, but it is important for an analyst to keep in mind when applying diagrams to their work.

In conclusion, activity diagrams are fairly easy to get the hang of, and will be useful for most projects because they plainly and moderately clearly demonstrate how things work.” Unlike many diagramming techniques, these diagrams also enable the depiction of multiple choices and actors within a work flow, and they are easy for even non-technical users to follow

Applications of activity diagram:

This diagram has been extended to specify flows among steps that transmit physical matter (e.g., gasoline) or energy (e.g., torque, pressure).

  • Additional changes allow the diagram to better support continuous behaviors and continuous data flows.
  • The UML 2 specification significantly prolonged the features and scale of activity diagrams beyond their earlier classification as a special case of state diagrams.
  • Today, activity diagrams can be thought of as flow charts for the 21st century, and UML modelers use activity diagrams to describe it.
  • Also, these diagrams are useful in following methods:
  • Business Rules
  • Functions that occur in parallel
  • Complex chain of multiple use cases
  • Software flows and logic control configurations
  • Procedures with judgment points and alternate flows
  • Single use cases



Source by Preeti D G

The Auction Arbitrage Secret – A Review

The Auction Arbitrage Secret is not the first e-book to be produced on the subject of arbitration selling using online auction sites. However, it does differ from some of the other books on the subject by the fact that it is written by someone who practices what he preaches and makes a good living following his own methods. Peter Bruckshaw buys and sells laptops, iPods, jewelry and many other products on eBay and obviously knows what he is writing about.

The term arbitrage was originally used in the financial world but more recently has also become associated with horse race betting on sites such as Betfair. It is now becoming frequently and sometimes incorrectly used to describe buying and selling on sites such as eBay. The basics of true arbitrage are where you get yourself in the position that you can not possibly lose money on a transaction.

When anyone talks about arbitrage in respect of online auctions what they are talking about is buying at one low price and selling at another higher one. This is not true arbitrage because whenever you buy anything there is always a risk that you may not be able to sell it. However, having said that, the odds are very much in your favor that you will profit from this type of trading.

Peter maintains it is very easy to set up an auction arbitrage business as all that is required is obviously an eBay and PayPal accounts and a sniper software program which will make bids on your behalf just as the auction is closing. You will also require some capital to make your first few purchases. It is possible to purchase suitable arbitrage products both offline and from eBay or other online auction sites. In the Auction Arbitrage Secrets you are given a step by step example showing showing how he purchased a printer for £ 45 and then sold it on eBay for £ 127.

This 79 page e-book is full of useful advice for anyone wishing to operate in the same way as Peter. On the downside I do not believe that the method is true arbitrage or in fact a "secret". People have been buying items and selling them for more than they paid for them since trading began. It is a well written e-book which is full of helpful advice and information which if followed could help anyone wanting to build a business selling products online.



Source by DJ Bromley

T-Shirts – Common Terms Explained

T-shirt manufacturers use many terms to describe their products. The terms are not always consistent and it helps to have a reference guide.

The following is the official Green Man T-Shirts Guide to understanding t-shirt terms:

20s, 20/1, 20s single: Unit of measurement that defines the fineness of cotton thread. A standard spool of single-ply cotton thread is comprised of 840 yards of cotton thread. If it takes 20 spools to weigh one pound, then the thread on those spools is referred to as 20s cotton, or 20/1. If 30 spools weigh one pound, then the thread on those spools is referred to as 30s cotton thread, or 30/1. If it takes 40 spools to weigh one pound, then the thread on those spools is referred to as 40s cotton, or 40/1. The higher number means a finer thread, and thus a finer, softer fabric is created. T-shirts made of 30s and 40s are softer, finer, and have better drape than t-shirts made of 20s. The terms are used many ways, but it’s the number that counts; “20s,” “20/1,” and “20 singles” are the same. Threads can be twisted together into thicker strands. If two 20/1 cotton threads were twisted together, it would be referred to as 20/2.

Bamboo Fabric: Rayon made from bamboo cellulose. Although rayon is a man-made synthetic material, most experts agree it is readily biodegradable. Bamboo fabric is extremely soft and has excellent drape.

Bamboo: Fast growing plant, classified as a grass, which can be readily processed into rayon to make bamboo rayon clothing.

Bleach Wash: A process that uses bleach to soften and distress the look of the fabric being washed.

Boat Neck: A very wide neckline that runs across the collarbone area to the shoulder points. Derives from early sailors’ shirts, where the wide neck enabled quick removal if the sailor fell overboard.

Boy Beater: Women’s fashion answer to the wife beater. A women’s tank top, although it can be any color.

Brushed Cotton: A method to remove excess lint and fibers from cotton fabric. Brushed cotton usually has a very soft, smooth finish.

Burn-Out: A process that uses sulfuric acid or other strong acid to “burn-out” parts of a fabric knit, usually a polyester/cotton blend. The process gives a see-through, very sheer effect.

Cap Sleeves: Usually refers to shorter sleeves on women’s garments.

Carbon Dioxide: CO2. A chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms and one carbon atom. Known as a “greenhouse” gas because of its relationship with global warming. A few t-shirt manufacturers are now measuring and recording the CO2 emissions involved in manufacturing their shirts.

Carbon Trust: Independent organization founded in 2001 in Great Britain that monitors carbon emissions. The Carbon Trust works with companies to help reduce their carbon footprint, and now certifies companies and products as having a “low carbon” or “no carbon” footprint. A few t-shirt companies now manufacture “low carbon footprint” t-shirts.

Carding: A fiber cleaning process that eliminates short fibers and removes dirt and foreign matter. Carding can be done by hand or by large machines using drum rollers. Carded-only cotton is not as desirable as combed cotton.

Cellulase Wash: Another name for enzyme wash. This gives fabric a soft feel and a vintage look, depending on how the wash is done.

Cellulose: Derived from the cell walls of certain plants. Useful in making certain types of fabrics, including acetate, triacetate, and rayon. Bamboo fabric is actually rayon made from bamboo cellulose.

Cheap Cotton T-Shirt: T-shirts made with carded cotton, using 18/1 thread, usually knitted on 20 gauge machines. These t-shirts are coarse, rough, and have poor drapability. Used often as cheap promotional give-aways.

Climate Neutral: A term used to describe a company, process, or product that has zero impact on the Earth’s climate. A few t-shirt manufacturers advertise their company as climate neutral.

CO2: Carbon dioxide. A chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms and one carbon atom. Known as a “greenhouse” gas because of its relationship with global warming.

Colorfastness: The ability of a garment to withstand multiple washings without losing its color.

Combed Cotton: A method to remove short fibers and to arrange longer fibers parallel to create a smooth, fine cotton yarn. Combed cotton has high strength, excellent uniformity, and better hand. Combed cotton costs more and is used in finer t-shirts.

Compacting: A process that compacts the space between cotton fiber pockets. Helps to reduce shrinking.

Contrasting Stitching: Stitching with a different color than the garment. Gives a nice design detail in t-shirts.

Control Union: An international organization that offers certification services for a variety of programs–including many organic certification programs. Certifies USDA Organic, as well as GOTS (Global Organic Textile Standard).

Cotton Jersey: Knitted, very slightly stretchy fabric with a smooth flat face and a more textured but uniform back. …

The KWP2000 Protocol in Automotive Diagnostic Applications

The KWP2000 protocol has become a de facto standard in automotive diagnostic applications. It is standardized as ISO 14230-3. KWP2000 describes the implementation of various diagnostic services you can accethrough the protocol. You can run KWP2000 on several transport layers such as K-line (serial) or CAN.

Transport Protocol

As KWP2000 uses messages of variable byte lengths, a transport protocol is necessary on layers with only a well defined (short) message length, such as CAN. The transport protocol splits a long KWP2000 message into pieces that can be transferred over the network and reassembles those pieces to recover the original message.

KWP2000 runs on CAN on various transport protocols such as ISO TP (ISO 15765-2), TP 1.6, TP 2. 0 (Volkswagen), and SAE J1939-21. For KWP2000, the Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports only the ISO TP (standardized in ISO 15765-2) and manufacturer-specific VW TP 2.0 transport protocols.

Diagnostic Services

The diagnostic services available in KWP2000 are grouped in functional units and identified by a one-byte code (ServiceId). The standard does not define all codes; for some codes, the standard refers to other SAE or ISO standards, and some are reserved for manufacturer-specific extensions. The Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports the following services:

• Diagnostic Management

• Data Transmission

• Stored Data Transmission (Diagnostic Trouble Codes)

• Input/Output Control

• Remote Activation of Routine

Upload/Download and Extended services are not part of the Automotive Diagnostic Command Set.

Diagnostic Service Format

Diagnostic services have a common message format. Each service defines a Request Message, Positive Response Message, and Negative Response Message. The Request Message has the ServiceId as first byte, plus additional service-defined parameters. The Positive Response Message has an echo of the ServiceId with bit 6 set as first byte, plus the service-defined response parameters.

The Negative Response Message is usually a three-byte message: it has the Negative Response ServiceId as first byte, an echo of the original ServiceId as second byte, and a ResponseCode as third byte. The only exception to this format is the negative response to an EscapeCode service; here, the third byte is an echo of the user-defined service code, and the fourth byte is the ResponseCode. The KWP2000 standard partly defines the ResponseCodes, but there is room left for manufacturer-specific extensions. For some of the ResponseCodes, KWP2000 defines an error handling procedure. Because both positive and negative responses have an echo of the requested service, you can always assign the responses to their corresponding request.

Connect/Disconnect

KWP2000 expects a diagnostic session to be started with StartDiagnosticSession and terminated with StopDiagnosticSession. However, StartDiagnosticSession has a DiagnosticMode parameter that determines the diagnostic session type. Depending on this type, the ECU may or may not support other diagnostic services, or operate in a restricted mode where not all ECU functions are available. The DiagnosticMode parameter values are manufacturer specific and not defined in the standard. For a diagnostic session to remain active, it must execute the TesterPresent service periodically if no other service is executed. If the TesterPresent service is missing for a certain period of time, the diagnostic session is terminated, and the ECU returns to normal operation mode.

GetSeed/Unlock

A GetSeed/Unlock mechanism may protect some diagnostic services. However, the applicable services are left to the manufacturer and not defined by the standard.You can execute the GetSeed/Unlock mechanism through the SecurityAccess service. This defines several levels of security, but the manufacturer assigns these levels to certain services.

Read/Write Memory

Use the Read/WriteMemoryByAddress services to upload/download data to certain memory addresses on an ECU. The address is a three-byte quantity in KWP2000 and a five-byte quantity (four-byte address and one-byte extension) in the calibration protocols. The Upload/Download functional unit services are highly manufacturer specific and not well defined in the standard, so they are not a good way to provide a general upload/download mechanism.

Measurements

Use the ReadDataByLocal/CommonIdentifier services to access ECU data in a way similar to a DAQ list. A Local/CommonIdentifier describes a list of ECU quantities that are then transferred from the ECU to the tester. The transfer can be either single value or periodic, with a slow, medium, or fast transfer rate. The transfer rates are manufacturer specific; you can use the SetDataRates service to set them, but this setting is manufacturer specific. The Automotive Diagnostic Command Set supports single-point measurements.

Diagnostic Trouble Codes

A major diagnostic feature is the readout of Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs). KWP2000 defines several services that access DTCs based on their group or status.

Input/Output Control

KWP2000 defines services to modify internal or external ECU signals. One example is redirecting ECU sensor inputs to stimulated signals. The control parameters of these commands are manufacturer specific and not defined in the standard.

Remote Activation of a Routine

These services are similar to the ActionService and DiagService functions of CCP. You can invoke …

Garage Represents Automobile Repair Shop

Garage represents automobile repair shop where various types of vehicles are serviced and repaired. Garage sometimes also refers to parking and storage place for vehicles. A residential garage is a part of a home or an associated building designed for storing vehicles.

It is a place of house reserved mostly for car parking, but can be used for as an extra storage place. The main purpose is to keep car safe. It keeps the car cool in the summer and warm in the winter. It must be kept well organized which can be achieved by placing items accordingly in shelves and cabinets attached to the interior walls of the garage. Bicycles, tools, lawn mowers and large appliances are usually placed in the garage. Traditionally garage doors were wooden which used to open either as two leaves or sliding horizontally. Nowadays latest garages are fitted with metal up and over doors which are electrically operated.

With the passage of time various new ideas have been generated regarding Garage storage. Much advancement has been made for designing garage cabinets, lighting, storage and flooring. Garage shelves are designed to be functional and should be made sturdy which can hold heavy items. Peg Board is the first way to install garage shelves which allows putting shelves anywhere by using special brackets. The first thing to keep in mind regarding garage organization is to get every object off the floor and on the wall with waterproof and durable panels. The panels can be installed directly into studs; these panels can support hooks, baskets and shelves for storing garden tools, lawn mower, sports equipment and many other items. Bikes can be hung from the ceiling and many heavy tools can be hung on the wall with hooks. Shelves are also a good way to keep smaller objects in. Wood, Steel and Aluminum cabinets are some of the options to consider for having strong shelves. Overhead garage storage also provides maximum amount of space and keeps well organized. Seasonal items should be placed in higher cabinets or in shelves designed for ceiling.

Garage flooring has various options available which includes garage floor epoxy coating, garage floor tiles and various chemical coatings are available. Beautiful floor looks attractive and is easy to clean and safe to walk. A garage looks complete with finished and well maintained garage flooring. Next important thing for a functional garage is the garage lighting. There are numerous types of garage lights available ranging from T8 and T5 fluorescent lighting, rail spot lighting, cordless LED lights and various decorative lighting.



Source by Jawwad Patel

Key Benefits Of Using Entity Relationship Diagrams

Entity Relationship Diagrams are the best tools to communicate within the entire system. These diagrams are the graphical representation of the flow of data and information. These diagrams are most commonly used in business organizations to make data travel easy. This conceptual database model is an effective way of communicating with the individuals at all the levels. In order to implement this system effectively in your system, it is essential that you have outstanding knowledge regarding the Lucidchart ER diagram. This will help you in using each and every feature of the flow diagram in an effective manner. In order to gain appropriate knowledge about these relationship diagrams, you can search for an ER diagram tutorial online.

The most common use of this diagram is to present the relation of the various tables present in a database. Some key benefits of Entity Relationship Diagrams are further discussed in this article.

Visual Representation

The most crucial benefit of ERD is that it offers a visual presentation of the layout. Having an effective design provides assistance to the database designers to determine the flow of data and working of the complete system. ERD in combination with data-flow diagrams result in an effective visual representation.

Effective communication

The clear representation of the data listed under proper headings and tables results in the effective flow of information and communication. The readers can easily understand the relationship between different fields. The information is represented via different symbols. There are various symbols for representing different information like relationships are represented by diamond shaped boxes, attributes are represented by ovals and entities are represented by rectangular boxes. These symbols allow the designer to have a proper understanding of the working of the database after completion.

Easy To Understand

Entity relationship diagrams can easily be created by expert designers. These are designed in a simple manner so that all the individuals can understand it easily. Before actually designing the database, the designers are required to get the design confirmed and approved the representatives who are to use this data. The representatives have the right to give their suggestions for rectifying the issues related to the designer. Their contribution can play an important role in enhancing the overall design.

High flexibility

This is yet another feature of ERD models. Though the complete database is linked to information in different tables, the readers can easily make out the relationship between various tables. There are several other mathematical formulae which can be used to determine the relationships.

Entity relationship diagrams are an essential part of the business organizations as they prove to be beneficial in managing wide data in an easy and effective manner. It acts as a blueprint of the existing database and allows the designers to create an accurate design as per the needs and requirements of the company and the project. The ERD model makes data flow more efficient. These creative and simple diagrams serve as the best tool for the business organizations allowing them to maintain their database effectively.



Source by Abhinav S Sidana

Auction Audacities – Ways People Scam Online Auction Users

You can find just about anything on eBay these day’s a random browse brings CDs, clothing, cars, and skin to your computer screen. That’s right, I said skin. One man recently auctioned patches of his body to advertising companies, who tattooed their logos on to him. EBay isn’t the only site for surfers bit by the auction bug. There are literally hundreds of sites on the web where you can sell your useless crap and use the money to buy someone elses useless crap. It’s a flea market if I ever saw one-just online. And hey, it’s not all junk. You can find some great deals on auctions sites.

One problem: People are getting scammed, which turns them off to these types of sites altogether. Of course, security is bound to be an issue whenever the Internet and money are involved, but with online auctions, individuals are in control, not corporations who are more trustworthy with business transactions. 99 times out of 100, the relationship between auctioneer and buyer will go smoothly, but just in case, here’s the top five ways users will scam you. Don’t become that minority who walks away from a deal having lost both money and item.

1. Phony Users. I don’t know what the reason is behind it, but some users will bid on items when they never have any intention of purchasing it. Your auction will be over, and the user will cancel his auction membership and disappear-and there’s not much you can do to stop him. Most auction sites charge a fee to sell items, so not only do you still have the unwanted item on your hands, but you also have lost money trying to sell it.

One way to prevent this from happening is to closely keep track of you auction. When the auction closes, take note of the second and third runners up. That way, if the winner bails on you, you can contact the others to see if they are still interested in purchasing the item from you. At some sites, you also have the option of only accepting bids from confirmed users-these are bidders who have either won and paid for items in the past or who have their own auctioneer’s account set up with the site. Check the guidelines, because every site is a little different on their definition of “confirmed buyer.”

2. Stolen Credit Cards. If you own a business and choose to accept credit cards, be careful about how you do this online. When a user pays with a stolen credit card, it may take a few days for the rightful owner to realize it’s one. Guess what? You won’t get the money for your item, which is already in the mail-as good as gone.

Credit card payments are tricky, and I don’t recommend using them unless you own a business with an online website that has credit card payments available. If not, call the credit card company. The name and address that the user provided for shipping should be the same name and address on the card. Companies are glad to check their records for you-it saves them time and money when their cards are stolen. If it doesn’t match up, decline the card and ask for payment in another way.

3. Shipping and Receiving Scoundrels. Whether you’re the buyer or seller, you should be cautious about the exchange of money and goods. Users can easily take your money or item and disappear without sending you what you’re due.

In most conditions, it is the buyer’s responsibility to send payment first. If you’re using a personal check to pay for an item, date the check two weeks from the day you send it. That way, if the seller never sends the item, you can cancel your check before its cashed. The best choice, especially for larger items, is to use an escrow service. These companies act as a go-between for buyers and sellers.

Check with the Better Business Bureau or Consumer Reports before selecting a service to make sure they aren’t scamming both buyer and seller by disappearing with the item and the money, both at once.

4. Check Bouncers. As with stolen credit cards, buyers can easily scam sellers by sending them checks that are no good. You receive the payment and mail the item, but when you go to cash the check, you find out that it is worthless. Don’t shoot yourself in the foot-use a third party service instead.

Third party payment services, the most popular of which is paypal, allow people to create free online accounts to transfer money. Using a bank account or credit card, you can send and receive money almost instantly, which prevents users from stealing your stuff. This is the best option for payment after an …

Quiet Grace on a Crowded Train

Having ridden the Orange Line (in Boston) for some 30 years now, I can honestly say that I have seen and / or experienced almost everything. From rowdy, troublemakers harassing passengers to gropers rubbing against women (I walked one woman to her office before going to mine just to make sure she was safe from the pervert following her) and they even had the opportunity of viewing the "member" of a man smiling at me from across a near empty train. I've seen people sit while a blind man stand (I yelled at them on my way out), and others pick their noses like sweet fruit from a tree.

From afar, I've seen pregnant women standing, struggling to hold on as the train jerked back and forth, and accidents and medical emergencies since before my eyes. Yes, I have even intervened in an attempted robbery while a crowd of women and men stood and stared … I know, I know … not very smart, but I guess my instinct to help kicked in.

But I think if you ride the T long enough (and you're lucky), you just might see some considerate, albeit rare, images as well. Like this morning on my way to work, I noticed a most impressive sight.

A young man in a wheel chair boarded the train at the second stop. He looked about twenty years old, healthy in his face and upper body except for handicapped arms and hands and legs and feet. He sat quietly, not making eye contact with anyone, while expertly manipulating the controls on his chair so as not to be in the way as people exited and entered the train car. I usually feel uncomfortable and unsure about how to properly interact with physically- or mentally-challenged people, so I just go with my gut and treat them with respect as I do other passengers, with maybe an extra smile thrown in for good measure.

Anyways, the train was pretty quiet as some people read and others closed their eyes and pretended to sleep while I, as usual, looked around scouting out fashion faux pas and anything that could be conceived as funny. As I surveyed the crowd, my eyes happened to steer in the direction of the young man in the wheelchair at the exact time that he began to yawn. That's when I saw the most amazing thing. As he yawned, he bought his bony, crooked arm up to his face and covered his mouth with his disfigured hand.

That simple, private, automatic reflect bought tears to my eyes. I mean if anyone could be excused from practicing good manners, it would be someone who finds it difficult or even painful to carry out such actions. Instead, here sat this considerate yet disregarded young man, possessing the grace and honor to display the basic manners most of us "healthy" people are too forgetful or lazy to exercise.

After that, the train stops at the next station. I saw him push some buttons on his chair and roll away, being careful not to bump into those rushing around him to exist or pushing towards him to board. As the train then folded out of the station, I watched him slowly ride down the platform then I closed my eyes and said a prayer for him. A prayer that he would be blessed, and find peace and happiness in his life and, of course, that the elevator at that station was in working order.



Source by Audrey Valeriani

Do not Be Stuck With a Lemon This Summer – Automobile Lemon Law Advice for Car Buyers

It's summer. The temperatures increase. The clothing diminishes. The checkbook comes out, itching to be used for a down payment on a new car.

Summer is one of the busiest car-buying seasons of the year, according to Consumer Advocate Craig Thor Kimmel, Managing Partner of the automobile lemon law firm of Kimmel & Silverman. Now is a terrific time to pick up some new wheels, but potential buyers should follow some important tips to avoid purchasing a faulty vehicle and having to hitchhike in the scorching heat.

"Although getting a new car can be exciting, it is something that should not be rushed," warns Kimmel. "There are certain automobile lemon law precedents consumers need to take to avoid buying the wrong car or paying more than they should."

First, to avoid needing to consult an automobile lemon law attorney like Kimmel, do your research. Make sure the type of car you are considering has a strong customer satisfaction rating, provides the features you need and want and is priced within your range. Consumer Reports is a terrific source of information, with detailed facts on almost every available vehicle, and Kelly Blue Book is great for pre-owned cars. Additionally, consult family, friends and neighbors, as well as Internet review sets like epinions.com. There is no better source of opinions than people who have actually owned the car.

Second, know the Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Price (MSRP). Without a car is in high demand, dealers generally sell their vehicles lower than the MSRP, meaning there is almost always wiggle-room with the sticker price and the final price. Also, do not forget to shop around; call several authorized dealers to see if they can get a better offer for you. Identical cars are widely available from dealer to dealer: it's only the price that changes!

Third, it's very important to try it before you buy it. Automobile lemon laws are in place to protect buyers from cars that do not work, but make sure you put it through the works before you sign the papers and drive off. Test every feature, from the defroster to the stereo to the horn. Take the car for a quick test drive, and listen for unusual sounds and pay attention to how the car steers, accelerates, brakes and handles. If something does not seem right, make sure you ask about it, and do not accept promises to fix it after the sale. Tell the dealer you will not agree to anything until the vehicle is running at 100 percent. This is the one time you have total control over the dealer and salesperson. Keep that control and demand perfection before you sign, or you may be buying a metal head down the road.

Fourth, never purchase a car without a manufacturer's warranty, whether the vehicle is new or used. Otherwise, getting your car fixed properly by qualified mechanisms, with the maximum of expertise and the minimum of hassle, may be next to impossible. If the manufacturer of the car will issue a warranty, it must stand behind the work performed, which keeps you protected.

Finally, know your rights as a consumer. If you have purchased a new car or a car with an existing manufacturer's warranty and you have a reoccurring problem that they can not seem to fix, you do have legal rights. Automobile lemon laws exist to protect you, and best of all, legal help is completely free to consumers under State and Federal Laws, so do not be afraid to consult an attorney if needed.



Source by Matthew R Ulmer

Step-By-Step Installation Guide For LED Scanner Knight Rider Lights

Are you wondering about installing an all new LED scanner Knight Rider light kit in your car and sparking up your boring vehicle? If the answer is yes, then this article just might come as a pleasant surprise for you. Listed below are simple easy-to-follow instructions for installing a Knight Rider light kit in your car.

Installing a LED Knight Rider kit doesn’t require much specific professional skills or technical expertise. With the simple plug and play facility, such illuminations can be installed within minutes without putting in any significant efforts. This kit can easily be installed in your car by following the easy instructions step by step. Read below to know how!

  • Remove the kit and open up the front cover of your car.
  • Position the scanner bar in such a manner that the wiring portion of the kit lies close to the battery of your car. This is done to ensure that later on the illuminations can be powered easily with the car’s battery without facing any kind of wiring problems.
  • Take out the zip ties and tie the scanner bar onto the grille of the vehicle using the zip ties. While tying the scanner bar with the grille, make sure that the end portion of the LED scanner bar wiring doesn’t get bent, or else the entire setup might just get damaged. The end wiring portion must be kept straight throughout the process, without fail.
  • Once the bar is tied firmly, attach the LED scanner with the control module, which is supplied in the Knight Rider kit.
  • Make sure to hide way the control module near the battery of the vehicle. This will ensure that the control module always remains dry and intact without getting damaged.
  • Out of the wires provided in the control module, connect only the red and black wires with the positive and negative terminals of the car battery. Leave all the remaining wires as it is, without making any connections.
  • Once the connections are done, you are all set to flaunt the upgraded version of your LED scanner Knight Rider light equipped car.

By following the above mentioned instructions, an LED scanner Knight Rider light kit can be installed easily and quickly in your car. Now, you won’t have to rush to the local mechanic or panic about installing the newly bought scanner lights in your car. Just read through these instructions and impart an all new look to your car!



Source by Eric Wu

Do You Know What One Of The Highest Selling Automobile Components Is?

So you’re one of the people that think automobile sales are the most progressing in sales probably because all of your friends and family have more that one automobile. But you’re wrong. For every automobile sold there are four or more of these critical components sold and without these things on your automobile your car would not run or work. In fact if you didn’t have these items on an automobile you would not be able to even sell the automobile. Well you want to know what I am talking about don’t you? Well I’m talking about the tires for your car, of course!

I’m sure you haven’t ever thought of this but while you own and operate your car you are wearing out tires constantly. An average survey done says that you use three sets of tires in a period of five years which is a total of 12 tires in five years depending on what kind of car you have some vehicles have more tires. If you’re one of those people like I am who go out in the woods and go mudding and just mess around in the outdoors you might be having a new set of tires each year that means in a period of five years you would have use 20 tires that’s a lot of tires don’t you think? So you see the demand for automobile tires is much greater than the demand for automobiles.

This is the reason why when rubber was first invented it was considered one of the most valuable things at the time and it was also called the “golden sap”. It was one of the most valuable things at the time and still is very valuable. Initially locations such as Malaya and Singapore (then known as the Malayan Peninsula) were the world’s top manufacturers of the new product and large nations with many consumers like the United States and almost all of Europe were very eager to get to this area and get their hands on this new product. This is probably why Europe has one of the biggest tire companies there and why there is so much rubber coming from Europe.

Now after many years have passed the demand for rubber tires is still increasing and showing no signs of slowing down. The demand for automobile tires keeps getting bigger and bigger there are more and more cars getting invented and getting put on the market which means more automobile tires are going to be needed to be produced.



Source by Gregg Hall

Leveraging Client Personas to the Hilt

Personas are essential to every business. If you don’t develop them for your target audience members, exactly how are you going to relate to the other person. Of course, you will need to develop several different personas because as you are well aware, not all people are the same. The concept is simple but there is a lot of thought and effort that you will need to put into it before you develop any personas for your various target audience members.

What is a persona?

Before you can do anything, you need to have a clear understanding of what a persona is. If you wrap your mind around that, you can proceed successfully after that. Basically, a persona is a clear idea of your target market. You develop the persona after you have been able to identify features that your target audience members have in common. It is important to keep in mind that you should never assume anything about your target audience members. You need to do your homework so that you have an understanding of those target audience members.

It should not be difficult for you to understand the differences and the similarities of your target audience members. Both the similarities and the differences need to be celebrated. The one thing that you don’t want to do is identify a unique characteristic of a particular target audience member and then try to highlight that feature. That will not help you to develop a persona at all. The reason that it is a bad idea is that you will not keep all of the other target audience members on your radar at the same time. You need to embrace them as a group with commonalities. The big picture is very important in this situation.

How should you build your personas?

When it comes to building personas, you will want to develop them with some depth and understanding so that they are effective now and in the future. In order to do that, you will want to consider the following:

  • A typical day of your target audience member subgroup
  • Objectives that you are trying to accomplish with that persona
  • Issues that may come up
  • The position and role that that persona will have
  • The roadblocks that you may encounter with that persona
  • The possible questions that may arise
  • The preferences of that particular group of people
  • Key phrases and keywords that will prove to be important and relevant
  • How you are going to engage those target audience members

A typical day: You need to have the ability to see things from the perspective of the other person. If you can do that and if you can feel what the other person feels and react in the way that the other person reacts, you will be able to develop an effective persona for that group of people.

When incorporating that persona into your content, you will want to write in first person. That way, your readers will feel that the thoughts and feelings that you are expressing are your thoughts and feelings, not someone else’s. It is important to remember that the only way that you will be effective is if you connect with the other person on an emotional/human level. Writing in first person will go a long way to making that happen. It is also important to keep in mind that the persona that you develop is not isolated. It is among other personas and other people. Keep that perspective in mind at all times and you will be successful.

Identify the persona’s objectives: The objectives should be details and specific. If they are too general, you will have a difficult time meeting them. It will be a lot easier to work toward a goal if you have cut a clear path to achieving something, one step at a time. That is always an effective approach and it will serve you well. Nothing good ever came from trying to rush toward your objectives. You need to do it methodically and in the most effective way possible.

Identify the main issues, roadblock, and questions that arise: This is easy to do but not as easy to get to. It will require a great deal of thought and contemplation before you can accomplish this. It is all a part of the journey of discovery of your target audience members and truly getting to know them intimately. It is important that you understand that you are here to help them to become more successful in whatever they are trying to accomplish.

Engage, engage, engage: Engagement is not always easy. However, if you approach it correctly, you will do fine. After you have developed all of the personas that need to be developed, you will want to create scenarios of engagement so that …

Deleted Text Message Reader

Earlier, many times, we all must have wishes that just like our computer; our mobile phone also should have been provided with a recycle bin. Finally our wishes have come true, with the introduction of deleted text message reader. Now it is possible to retrieve important text messages – these could be a congratulatory, consoling message, an important address, telephone number etc.

Now it is possible to recover these “lost” messages – this is because the messages are not immediately deleted from the memory of you hands free cell phone or from your SIM card (depending on where the “deleted” message was sent ) – instead, the space occupied by the “deleted “message is marked as reusable space which can be used later when there is a need for it This is why till the space occupied by the “deleted” message is erased by some other date being written above that, it is possible to recover the “lost” text message and read text messages.

You will need some tools – these are a USB SIM card reader and a SIM card recovery program. The USB SIM card reader is not very expensive and could be purchased on the net also. The SIM card recovery programs are similar to data recovery programs which are used to recover “lost” data in computers, but these are specifically geared to recover “lost” text messages in mobile phones. You may not believe the efficacy of such programs but once you begin using them, you will realize that they are pretty effective.

The SIM card recovery programs are not free but the good thing about them is that they permit a free trail period for a short while so that you can try it and only if you are convinced that it really works you can go ahead and purchase it. These programs, not only recover “lost” text messages but can also recover” deleted” songs, pictures, videos etc.

In a computer, even if you have deleted an email and sent it to the recycle bin, emptied your recycle bin and your “trash” it is still not too difficult for you to recover your “deleted” emails – they would still be in your hard drive. With dedicated email recovery tools, you will still be in a position to locate your missing files and recovering them. What you need to remember is to be quick at your attempts to recover this date as the hard drive keeps overwriting files so as to accommodate new data or new emails which are coming in – the same principle works for recovering “lost” text messages in your cell phones – you need to take action quickly to try to recover your “deleted” text messages. The deleted text message reader will help you in this process.

As regards a computer, please keep in mind that if you had not opened a particular email or if the “deletion” was due to corruption of files, then the chances of recovering the “deleted” email will be more difficult and you will not be able to read or listen to text.



Source by Daniel Vetorri

Help, My TI-83 / Ti-84 Won’t Graph

It’s 8 o’clock at night. Dinner is over. You’re sitting down to watch a movie or Monday Night Football — and then it happens . . . “Mommmmmmmmm (or Daddddddddddd), my calculator isn’t working. I have to turn in my math homework tomorrow, and my graph isn’t showing up.”

“This can’t be so bad”, you think. “I passed high school math. Heck, I even installed the Quicken Accounting System at work. How complicated can a calculator be?”

The last time you looked at your child’s TI-83 or TI-84 was in August at the office superstore; it was in the front of a shopping cart with on top of a pile three ring binders and notebook paper. It didn’t look so bad then, but now you take a closer look and there are all kinds of keys you never saw before on a calculator. At the bottom is something familiar — a normal looking array of number keys, and at the right are the usual add, subtract, multiply, and divide keys. But what the heck are “MODE”, “DEL”, “STAT”, “ZOOM”, “TRACE”, etc. ? What are you going to do? Who ya gonna call?

Relax.

Here are a couple of really simple things to do; but remember, the title of this article is “Help, My TI-83 / Ti-84 Won’t Graph”, and that is really all that is addressed in this article.

The Graphing Buttons

Look at the top row of buttons on the TI-83/TI-84 calculator. There should be five of them, set apart from the other buttons; and they should have the following labels:

      [Y=]   [WINDOW]   [ZOOM]   [TRACE]   [GRAPH]

This is where all of your activity is going to take place.

The Three Major Problems

Most of the time when a graph is not displaying, there are three reasons:

  1. Graph Function.The graph function is not entered properly, or not entered at all.
  2. Graph Not Turned On. The graph function is entered properly, but graphing is not turned on.
  3. Viewing Window. The viewing window for the function is set to the wrong size or location.

We will deal with these one at a time.

Check that the Graph Function is Entered Properly

Push the [Y=] key at the top of the calculator. This puts you into the Y= editor screen. You should see a screen that looks something like this:

Plot1 Plot2 Plot3

Y1= 2X+1

Y2=

Y3=

Y4=

Y5=

Y6=

The expression “2X+1” is just an example, but you need to see some kind of expression in the Y= editor screen, not just a bunch of blank “Y=” lines. If all you see is the following, then you need to add an expression:

Plot1 Plot2 Plot3

Y1=

Y2=

Y3=

Y4=

Y5=

Y6=

If you want to try a really simple expression to make sure that the calculator can plot, use “Y1=X”. This should plot a nice 45 degree line directly through the origin of the graph screen.

Check that the Graph Function is Turned On

It is possible that graphing of the function is not turned on in the Y= editor screen. This error is a little bit subtle. Look at the “=” sign in the equation you are trying to plot The “=” sign, must be highlighted.

If it is not, you must cursor to the “=” sign and press the [ENTER] key, to highlight it.

Viewing Window must be Set to Correct Size and Location

If the viewing window is set to the wrong size or location, the calculator may plot but you won’t see it on the screen.

There are many ways to set the viewing window, but an easy reliable method is to simply “Zoom Out”, until you see the function you are trying to graph. Push the [ZOOM] key at the top of the calculator. Then push “3” to zoom out. Repeat until you see the function you are trying to graph. Now you should have some idea what window you need to use to see the function plotted. Push the [WINDOW] key at the top of the calculator and adjust the display characteristics as necessary.



Source by Samuel Mela

The Right Way to Buy Cars at a Government Auction

If you're looking to buy cars at a government auction and get the best deal, then there are some things you need to know about. In this article we will discuss both the positives and negatives of government auctions. I will offer to use some long-term strategy which should pay off time and time again because it will teach you how to purchase cars and find the truly Best deals from Government auctions. In government car auctions, good things come to those who wait. This means waiting for the right kind of car. Also, waiting for the right bitting atmosphere. If you want a car too much, and you're up in bidding wars, you will pay more than you should. Finally, you must be patient and do the research on the car you want to purchase. You must be able to eye test each car to determine if it runs well or if it's in bad condition.

The point is this: if your looking for a great deal on a car and you need one right away, you probably are not going to find it through Government auctions. This does not mean you can not get a great deal at Government auctions for your vehicle. I will now give you advice on how to locate and find great deals.

First of all, a lot of Government auctions have high-quality vehicles with low mileage. And the best part of all, is they are under market value. You will not find these in any car lot. The reason for this is that a lot of these vehicles have been used by government agencies. Government agencies pride themselves in maintaining outstanding condition of their vehicles. Sometimes they sell these vehicles to acquire more modern vehicles, therefore giving you a great deal. These do not come along every day, but when they do you be happy you found them.

Also, sometimes getting the best deal out of car auctions requires more than one transaction. For example, if you find a great deal on a car, you can purchase it and then resell it yourself for a profit. You probably will not be able to sell it right away, but if you can wait on it and sell it a month or two later and turn a nice profit, how many times would you do this? This is another benefit of buying through Government car auctions.

In conclusion, the people who are most profitable by using government car auctions are those who are patient. They patiently wait to find the best deals on good cars, and they often have another strategy along just the initial purchase. Government auctions are where you can get the greatest deals if you know how to do it. Follow the principals given in this article, and you'll be well on your way.



Source by Michael Ullman

Cheap Home Loans California

We know that world is changing day by day. Due to this change, the Needs of humans are also increasing in the demand. Now today human needs luxury living, attractive clothes, latest model cars and other living things which are in huge demand now. In addition to these, Brand new luxury homes will be the huge demand of the people. But the problem is purchasing a “New Luxury Home” is very difficult today. It is impossible for everybody, especially those who are belongs to middle class or low income families. Because the buying rates of these luxury homes are very some times their prices are out of range. Hence low income employee or moderate family can’t afford luxury living.

Now the question is “Is any solution for this problem”. The only way to buy a new home is Cheap Home Loans. For the people of California & Los Angeles who has low annual income & wants to get luxury living, These loans are the best way to get luxury living. These Loans have very low interest rates & very few terms & conditions than other kinds of secured loans like home loans, real estate loans and various kids of Business Loans. The repayment term for this loans is vary from half years to more then 10 years. Every financial company, banks or financial institutions are also provides cheap Home loans to people as a business. People can be used this type of loans for buying small home or house, improvement of old home & repair of the old home.

Cheap home loans, there are two types:

1)Secured home loans

2)Unsecured Home Loans

The Secured home loans are not costly because this type of loans have low interest rates but people have to give collateral against the loans while unsecured loans are costly because this type loans have high interest rates. One disadvantage this type of loans is people do not have guarantee to repay the loan amount. Now Your are familiar with both types of loans . Now there is problem, how to find a reliable home loan provider. This is as like, how to find a reliable legal adviser. Because legal advisers are every where but reliable legal advisers are hard to find. Especially on the web or on the internet, Unfortunately if you find a suitable & reliable legal advisor, what will you do if its consulting fee is very high.. Similarly cheap Home Loans providers are everywhere but reliable home loans provider is hard to find.

I have a solution of this problem. I recently come across a website who provides cheap home loans for the people of california The name of the company is online-fast-loans [http://www.online-fast-loans.com/] Online-Fast-Loans advice you about how to get these loans in California & Los Angeles. Apart from cheap home loans, you will also find out some valuable information about unsecured home loans California, Secured home loans California & some other types of loans like construction loans California & real estate loans California. I appreciate this company for his excellence. You also visit this company url [http://www.online-fast-loans.com/] once & finds lots of information regarding loans .

If you really likes this article please comments on this article

Thanks & Regards

Dhiraj kapila



Source by Dhiraj Kapila

Salvage Auto Auctions – Things to Consider Before Buying Salvaged Cars

Because of the inevitable economic crisis, people would no longer go to car dealers to buy a car. They are often seen going to salvage auto auctions to buy really cheap cars. You may find these auctions from any of your local newspapers or in some pages of your favorite magazines. However, most people prefer salvage auto auctions that are found online where it is more convenient to shop than going to actual auctions.

The Considerations

Driving your next car at a very low price and in just a few clicks is a true magical experience. However, do not get yourself hypnotized by what you see and buy the car you are interested in without taking the following facts for consideration.

1. Know your salvage cars. Salvage cars are those used cars that have been the subject of an accident, stuck by fire, flooded, hit by debris, and have been declared totaled by the last owner's insurance company. This means that you will have to do some repairs on the car you intend to buy. Therefore, it is best to visit the actual auction so that you can conduct some technical inspection on the car before actually paying for it. Most salvage auto auctions allows you to see, check, and conduct some inspection. This is to show their good faith and to uphold the good name of their company. However, if you have limited knowledge on the technical aspects of a vehicle, it is highly advisable that you bring with you a mechanic to help you check the car.

2. Know the Pros and Cons. One obvious advantage in getting a salvaged car in closed car auctions is that you get to own a car and amazingly save money without having to go through an irritating dealer. Buying a salvaged car is not really as cheap and fun as it may seem. You may not be able to get full liability car insurance. You will have to shoulder the expenses for the repairs. These repairs may sometimes cost you much. And you will be required to pay on the spot immediately after the bidding process. So you need to bring with you cash, checkbook, or pre-approved loan from a financing institution before attending an auction.

Being able to know what salvage cars really are providing you with the knowledge of the pros and cons in buying them. Your search for your next vehicle would certainly be fun and enjoyable in salvage auto auctions.



Source by Calvin Anderson