Category: gsa auto auction

Negotiate Like a Professional

Negotiating can be done in a professional manner that can increase customer satisfaction while helping to protect both parties’ interests.

Let’s first look at some of the problems that give negotiating a bad name and then look at the solutions. A lack of training in negotiating in the automotive industry has put sales people at a disadvantage. Usually, a sales person is taught how to negotiate in a learn-as-you-go method. Although all learning must be accomplished by doing, some preparation has to be done to make the learning experience more effective. All sales people and managers should go through a course on basic and advanced negotiating. Assuming that sales managers can automatically teach your sales people to negotiate professionally is asking for trouble. How did the managers learn to negotiate?

Sales people should be taught the expected procedures. I like to call these routing procedures. Routing procedures will define everyone’s responsibilities, from the moment a customer is greeted until they are delivered, including the necessary paperwork and who initiates what. Included in the routing procedures are items known as, black and white items. Black and white items are the things that should never vary at your dealership. These items are to be defined by your top management and can include such things as not quoting discounted prices on the lot or never low-balling on price.

Another source of problems in negotiating is the misuse of traditional negotiating techniques. The “higher authority technique” is a technique of always deferring to a higher authority for a decision. The technique is a solid negotiation tactic that has been run into the ground by automotive people. Having your sales people run to the manager more than once or twice in negotiations is a crime. Not giving the sales person any latitude or decision-making capability in negotiations leads to the yo-yo effect that creates mistrust in the sales person and customer.

When is the last time a sales person in your dealership was taught what to do when a customer asks for a lower down payment, lower payment, higher trade values or a reduction of the sales price. Most veteran sales people in dealerships all over the country could not verbally and written give you at least three or four steps to each one of the above objections without having to think or blink. How many objections in negotiation are there? Most objections fall into only a few categories. Have your sales people role played recently on those objections and the potential answer to them? Example: “Mr. Customer, we would be happy to lower your monthly budget $50 a month. Did you want to go 60 months instead of 48, or put $1,500 more cash investment, or look at the car with about $50 a month less in equipment, or look at a lease/Smart Buy program? Which would be best for you?” Whether you like my words or there are some others you prefer is not as important as having a way to handle the objections and practicing them over and over until the sales people know their negotiating skills.

“He or she who prepares the most, wins the most.” A large part of negotiating is knowing when and how to negotiate, as well as being prepared for all situations. The tragic death of John Kennedy Jr. might have been prevented with more preparation. Although negotiating may not be life or death for a sales person, it can feel like life or death to a sales person that wants to help his or her customer and doesn’t know how.

The following are few simple negotiating techniques:

1. Flinch – always flinch at any proposal or counter proposal.

2. Split the Split – When customers offer to split the difference, offer back to split their proposal again. Example: $3,000 apart $1,500 split offered $ 2,250 your counter

3. Bracket proposals – If your desired gross profit is $3,000 and the customer offers you $1,500, propose back as much above your desired profit as they proposed below, example: $4,500 gross would be the same $1,500 amount above your desired gross, as they had offered below. Most likely they will offer to split the difference and it also lends credence to your offer.

4. Give/get – Try always to get something in return for giving something. This will stop the customer from nibbling and eroding your gross. If you don’t use give/get, you will not only give away all your gross but will also create a shopper.

Everyone negotiates everyday. Whether it’s on vehicles, houses, relationships or pay plans etc., everyone negotiates on things we sometimes didn’t even realize we had negotiated on. Somehow people walk away from negotiating things other than automobiles feeling extremely positive about the process. Why? I invite you to ask how you would …

Automatic Cat Feeders: How To Avoid The 5 Most Common Mistakes When Buying One

Automatic cat feeders are a very good solution for feeding our pets when we are not home or when we are too busy to take care of that task on a daily basis. They are great for us and our pets but buying an automatic cat feeder for the first time can be challenging and a big headache if you ignore some important factors before making any purchase. Believe me; some people have learned this lesson the hard way by buying several automatic feeders, one after another to find out that none of them were a good solution for their cats.

You can avoid wasting time and money by keeping the following factors in mind before buying any automatic pet feeder:

1. Price is not a good indicator of high quality

Some high-priced automatic cat feeders are excellent and are worth the money you pay for them, but on the other hand you can find expensive automatic feeders on the market that are cheap made and not a solution at all for you and your cat. If you want to do a good buy try not to consider the price as a buying criterion. It is recommended to investigate customer reviews and quality of the materials as well. Sometimes “All that glitters is not gold”.

2. Automatic pet feeders perform differently depending on pellet sizes

If you feed your cat with small pellet size (1/4″ diameter) and you need your cat to eat small portions of food at a time you have to keep in mind that not all automatic pet feeders will accomplish this. Some devices perform better with small kibbles because they are designed with a roller and baffle system which allows them to push the food out in small amounts of food at a time. However, there are other types of automatic feeders that work with a screw system to dispense the food and they perform better with big pellet sizes (1/2″ diameter) to release small and specific amounts of food at a time to make a feeding schedule for your cat.

3. It is not a good idea to buy the automatic pet feeder just days before you leave on a trip

Automatic cat feeders were created for us to feed our pets when not being home so it makes sense to buy one if we want to go on a trip, but in order to leave our cat alone with an automatic solution we must go through a learning curve experience before. This is very important because as you use this new device you learn eventually some fails, how to fix them, how your cat behaves with it, etc. And this process takes longer than just a few days, this takes at least 3 weeks before you can leave your pet alone at home and being confident it will get fed on time. Several issues could happen if you don’t test the new device enough, some of them are:

  • Batteries not lasting as they suppose to and the unit might stop working.
  • If it works with an AC adapter, your cat might unplug it while walking around.
  • The first week could go smoothly but the following days your cat could break into the feeder and tip it over or figure out a way to gorge itself eating all the food at once.
  • The automatic feeder might jump one feeding cycle while you are away because you missed some instruction when programming it.

Incidents like this could happen when your experience with the new automatic feeder is not long enough to detect them on time and fix them.

4. Cats are very versatile animals

With some good exceptions, it seems like human being cannot keep up with cat’s versatility when it comes to create automatic feeders. You can buy the best one on the market but there is not foolproof automatic cat feeder if your cat is smart enough or very determined to get extra food from it.

Before buying an automatic feeder for your pet, keep in mind that there is a real risk of your cat trying to break into the feeder. Usually, cats are very obsessed with food and you will have to teach your pet to respect the automatic feeder from the outset and discourage it from trying to break into it.

There are breeds like the Bengal or Siamese that could more likely try to manipulate the unit to get extra food from it, but this isn’t 100% true either because all cats have their individual personalities. You better than anyone knows how your cat is. To give you an idea, if your cat is smart enough to open doors or manipulate things in general with its paws, then you need to get an automatic feeder with extra protection. Fortunately, there …

Enduro Racing Tips – 3 Things To Look At When Choosing Your Racer

The first thing you need to know are the rules of the particular enduro event you are going to enter. Here in the Central Vermont area you will find two types of enduros.

8 Cylinder enduro races are as rare as the “old boats” you would want to run in one. My old 1979 Ford Thunderbird was one of the best cars I have ever driven in a race.

The 4 and 6 Cylinder enduros are more common. Little cars can be found all over. I drove a 1997 Ford Escort Wagon last year.

The 3 things you must look at when choosing your enduro car.

1) Price. You don’t want to spend a lot. The car more than likely will be heavily damaged over the 200 laps of a typical enduro. I paid $50 for that little Escort wagon.

2) Solid Car. Not only do you not want to spend a lot on a car you know is going to get wrecked, you want to find the most solid car for your money. Driving a rusted junk in an enduro race is begging for disaster. I will use an example from one of my earlier races…

It’s 1994 and I’m driving a 1979 Buick LeSabre in the annual Enduro 200 at Thunder Road. It’s only about 100 laps into it and I get caught in a big pile-up. Some yahoo that was looking somewhere else plowed into my car and my trunk lid popped open.

Once the wreck got sorted out and the survivors got rolling again, I noticed that I was being black flagged.

“Why the heck are they black flagging me for? A popped up trunk lid should not be a problem in an enduro, right?”

I chose to ignore the black flag for a couple of laps. The flagmen got pretty frantic and were leaning out over the cars trying to get my attention.

” They really want me to pit. I better go get that trunk lid strapped down”.

When I pulled into the pits, my crew guys told me to shut the car down.

“What? Strap that lid down and let me get back out there’.

“There’s nothing to strap it to!”

My car had completely disintegrated from the rear wheel wells back. One frame rail was bent 90 degrees and sticking out straight.

The gas tank had been dragging on the track. That’s why those flagmen had been so frantic.

The moral of the story. Please choose a solid car for your enduro racer.

3) How much will you have to invest to get your racer race ready? If you’re starting from scratch, it’s going to cost you about $500 to turn a street car into an enduro racer. That’s materials. If you’re paying someone to work on your racer, plan on a lot more.

How well does the car run? Choose a car that runs well and will take very little mechanical work to get race ready.

Enduro racing can be a lot of fun if you build a strong car that can survive the chaos of this type of racing. To build a strong car, you have to start with one and that’s what this article was all about.



Source by Jonathan Hutchinson

Interesting Facts About The Outboard Motor

One of the most common propulsion system designed for smaller watercraft is the outboard motor. Probably the most remarkable thing concerning this propulsion device is that it doesn’t simply just supply the power that makes a watercraft go forward but it likewise acts as the steering device. You can easily say that an outboard is a fine combination of the engine, gearbox and the propeller every one properly rolled into one system.

When the motor is not operating, the skeg acts as a rudder to direct the boat. Another thing I really like about outboard motors is actually that they can quite easily be repaired or perhaps stored due to their portability. Another cool ability of the outboard engine is actually that it can tilt up while running through shallow waters letting you to evade rocks or the build up of seaweeds. Being able to tilt up the outboard motor is also helpful whenever relocating a boat using a trailer.

What Kind Of Outboard Motor Should You Be Using?

There are several kinds of outboard motors for different types of applications. You should suit the outboard’s power with the weight of the boat and the load it carries. For example, Big Outboards can generate up to 350 hp – enough power to propel an 18 feet boat or possibly more.

The small portable outboards just make about 15 hp and can easily be attached to boats using clamps. If you include the petrol tank, the smallest outboards will still just weigh approximately 12 kilos. But do not belittle this tiny outboard. You may go around eight knots or fifteen km/hour in case you’re riding a small boat and a little portable outboard motor.

Figuring out the power of an outboard motor necessary begins with figuring out what amount of load will be powered.

The Birth Of Outboard Motors

Cameron Waterman was still a young student at Yale Engineering when he started work on the outboard motor. His hard work paid off as his four-stroke outboard motor turned out to be the first commercially viable, gas-fueled outboard engine. The time period between 1903 and when his patent was released in 1905 that Cameron Waterman probably created the outboard engine.

In 1907, the full-blast production of Cameron Waterman’s machines began building only twenty-four machines that year and in due course manufacturing thousands of machines within 5 years. Time passed and Kiekhaefer decided to buy Waterman’s shares in the company that first manufactured outboard motors.

Although Mr. Waterman’s earliest outboard was a four-stroke engine, two-stroke outboards turned out to be much more well-liked mainly because they were uncomplicated in design, more dependable, cheaper to make and light in weight. The two-stroke outboard machines, popular as they were, made a good deal of noise and air pollution mainly because of the unburnt gas. The United States and some European authorities in time made some actions that resulted in more four-stroke outboards getting produced.

What You Most Likely Didn’t Know

Ole Evinrude, a Norwegian-American inventor, is frequently mistakenly acknowledged as the designer of the earliest working and saleable outboards. He did build and was able to sell thousands of outboard engines but it was in the year 1909 that he began manufacturing outboard engines – two years later than Waterman did.

For more than a century now, the four-stroke outboards have been available in the market.

Fuel economy is enormously enhanced by direct injection on both four-stroke and two-stroke outboards. The petrol saved simply by using direct injection could be around eighty percent and 10% being on the low end.



Source by Adam Primero

Katharine Hepburn: A Lifetime of Secrets Revealed

Katharine the Great (1907-1950)

A lifetime of secrets revealed

By Darwin Porter

Blood Moon Productions, Ltd., Feb. 2004

Trade paperback, ISBN 0-9748118-0-7, 569 pages, 58 photos, $16.95

In the spring of 1958 I was driving north with some college buddies from New Haven to Hartford, Connecticut. We caught up with a classic 1948 Lincoln Continental bearing the custom license plate KATE. It had to be someone special and we were not disappointed. As we cruised past we immediately recognized the unmistakable patrician profile of Katharine Hepburn, driving herself, alone in the camel-colored convertible.

Her mouth held the hint of a smile; an aura of superiority and mystery surrounded her. We tried not to stare. (OK, we were gawking.) She wore that mantle of mystery all her life, thanks to her skill in keeping the press at bay, until her passing in 2003 at age 96.

Author Darwin Porter, following his remarkable 2003 book on the private life of Humphrey Bogart, has surpassed himself with this incredibly detailed biography of one of the 20th century’s premier stage and movie stars. “Write anything about me you like,” she told Porter, “just don’t ever tell the truth.”

Sorry, Kate. Here comes the truth.

Even as a child Katharine Hepburn was a self-centered, headstrong, tomboy. After graduating from Bryn Mawr she launched her acting career on the East Coast, just as Humphrey Bogart did, with the help of friends in the theater business. Her agent (and later, lover) Leland Hayward, encouraged her to head to Hollywood, where the big money was. The studios didn’t know what to make of her, demanding (and receiving!) ten times what first-time movie actresses were being paid. When her train pulled into Los Angeles’ Union Station in July 1932, she had a $6,000 RKO one-picture contract under her arm and an attitude that preceded her like a snowplow. She never looked back. Although Katharine the Great catalogs her work on 25 films up until 1950, including how close she came to landing the role of Scarlett O’Hara (opposite Errol Flynn?) in Gone With the Wind, the author focuses on what happened behind the movie camera – on the set and off. There is not room here to discuss her hapless husband or list the 30-year diary of Hepburn’s intimacies, from Jimmy Stewart, Howard Hughes and Spencer Tracy to Greta Garbo, Claudette Colbert and Judy Garland, meticulously chronicled by Porter. The key question is how did he do it? Half a century and more after the fact?

The answer lies in the unlikely confluence of three facts: A) Porter’s mother began a scrapbook on Hepburn back in the 1920s, and Porter kept it up; B) Katharine couldn’t keep from gossiping about herself to close friends who later recalled all too well the private life she revealed, and C) Porter became an entertainment journalist, interviewing literally hundreds of people over a period of decades who knew and worked with Hepburn during her long career. Every source is annotated in a 21-page afterword, name by name.

He also met Miss Hepburn through his employer Tennessee Williams and had the opportunity to interview her.

If you are curious about the four-time Oscar winner once dubbed “Katharine of Arrogance,” and would like to peek under her covers and into her closets, this thorough volume will more than satisfy your curiosity. Be warned, Porter’s research is not for prudes. If this book were a movie it would carry an R rating, for grownups only.

Stay tuned. Darwin Porter isn’t done yet; he promises more on Katharine Hepburn in Volume II.

http://www.bloodmoonproductions.com



Source by John C Stickler

Ping Pong Table Tennis – An Idea To Arrange a Party

Want to have a fun and exciting party with your creative Rec Room, where your guest can interact and play? How about using your ping pong Table Top for your Tennis Themed Party!

Few ideas to make your party fun loving and well-organized –

Tennis Party Invitations:

In order to give a personal touch to your invitation, send the personalized Tennis themed invitation with your owning creativity that could make your guest more curious about the party and about the party’s theme. If you want to get creative with the party invitation, then grab a can of tennis ball and stick your invitation in the tube and send it to your guests!

Tell your guests that they must come in tennis outfits so they are ready to play Ping-Pong when they arrive. You can make the invitation an announcement that they are going to be in a tennis tournament. This will keep them guessing, but they won’t know that they will be actually playing on a Ping Pong Table.

Tennis Party Decorations:

Set up your Ping Pong Table as center court, and the “spectators” or guests can gather around to watch the game. You can even set up rows of seats around the Ping-Pong table, so you can really get that center court feel. Set up the food and beverage area as concession stand.

You can have some old tennis racquets, tennis balls, and even the tennis ball tubes as vase for decorations. Also having some yellow, green, white balloons and streamers around the room can really keep the theme going with the party.

Tennis Introduction Activity:

In order to make your guests feel like sports celebrities, you can set up a little area to have the couples get their pictures while they walk in. You can have little props such as tennis balls, tennis rackets, or tennis bags to really make them look like tennis stars. You can post those pictures on social networking sites like Facebook so as to share the fun moment with everyone once the party ended.

Tennis Food and Beverages:

Getting green tablecloths and yellow plates with white cutlery will make your party go colorful. You can use a bowl of tennis balls or the tennis ball tubes with flowers as a centerpiece of the table. Have some easy finger food that would be found at a concession stand such as chips, hot dogs, chicken wings, hamburgers, nachos, and fruit salad can me easy to prepare and stratify your guests.

For beverages keeping things light is the easiest. Of course having plenty of water bottles will be important or even a little Gatorade. But to keep party on roll, have some beer and wine on ice, it takes up less space than having a full bar. Plus don’t forget desert! Having cupcakes that look like tennis balls can be an easy treat to prepare and a great decoration for your food table.

Tennis Party Games and Activities:

When guest walk in, you should have a large tournament board set up so that all the “players” or guests are set up on the tournament board. This will help you to keep game scheduled, and the winner on track for playing on the Ping Pong Table. To keep things simple and short, you should set up a single elimination tournament bracket. Also have everyone play to 11 to speed up the games but of course you will need to win by 2 points. Then follow the normal Ping-Pong rules for playing singles for everything else for the final game. The final game you might want to play until 21 to keep the excitement on high. If you have lots of guests or you are short on time, you can have people play the doubles to make things go faster, or just have a couple’s tournament.

Tennis Party Favors

Depending on your budget, you can have a little awards ceremony to announce the winner or you can also give out other prizes such as most improved or best dressed. Having a personalized trophy for the winner with the date of the party will also make guests happy, and may be keep the tournament going for years to come!

You can use the photos as a memento for your guest as it would really be very touchy and will also make your guest happy while leaving the court or party.

Check out our Table Tennis Table Tops at http://www.EverythingRecRoom.com for great deals and free shipping.



Source by Jeff P Simpson

The Windshield Replacement Survival Guide – Consumer Auto Glass Education

Replacing Your Vehicle’s Windshield? Here is Your Windshield Replacement Survival Guide.

Safety First

A vehicles windshield provides the occupants a barrier from road debris and the outside elements. But most people don’t know a windshield is designed for structural safety in case of an accident, especially a rollover. A windshield is a vehicles third most important safety feature behind the seat belts, and air bags.

Windshields are like basketball backboards for air bags. So if you have a damaged windshield your air bag may not function correctly. It actually may inflate out the windshield cavity, rather than towards you. Or it won’t adsorb any pressure because your windshield simply pushes out.

Most consumers are not aware that when technicians replace your windshield, there is significant scratching to the “pinchweld” where the glass bonds to the car. These scratches must be prepped using paint and rust prevention steps. They should not simply leave exposed scratches where moisture from the exterior side can cause rust to develop.

Here are some questions you should ask your auto glass company:

  • Is the new glass OEM?
  • Did they remove the brand label on the windshield?
  • Does the new glass have a shade band that matches your old glass?
  • Is the new windshield the same color glass? (glass is actually colored, not clear)
  • Does your windshield have a rain sensor?
  • Is your windshield heated? (companies will install non-heated and charge for heated)
  • Does the windshield have the right bracket for your rear view mirror?
  • Does the new windshield have the same third visor as your old glass? (the painted black design which you can see around the rear view mirror on most cars)
  • Are they using a universal trim molding, or the actual trim molding part for your vehicle?
  • Does the company pay to fix paint scratches, if made by the auto glass technician?

Always inspect a piece of glass for scratches and distortion before it’s installed.

Types of Automotive Glass

A windshield is actually two layers of glass with a laminate material between the layers, what is called “laminated glass”. Laminated glass is extremely hard to puncture or break apart. That’s why a large object like a stunt man, can impact the windshield without breaking through. The strength of laminated glass combined with proper adhesion of the windshield to the body of the car provides massive strength against the roof collapsing in a rollover.

All of the other windows in your vehicle are “tempered glass”, which means they break into tiny fragments to reduce injury to the occupants. (a small fraction of vehicles have laminated side and rear windows also)

Windshield Urethane

Today’s vehicles use urethane as the adhesive to bond the windshield to the vehicle, like a glue. Some urethane after complete hardening which can take 2-4 weeks, can hold 500 pounds per square inch of pressure. That’s one reason why you could never simply push your windshield out. Impossible! Some urethane allows you to drive away within one hour after installing the windshield, hardening just enough to withstand vehicle accidents. When your replacement has been completed, make sure to inspect the inside of your vehicle around the edge of the glass. Make sure no urethane has oozed out into view or onto your vehicles interior. This is more common then people realize and needs to be fixed immediately before the glue hardens!

The urethane is normally heated, then applied to the glass or car body at the raised temperature. Depending on where you live or the application, they can use different kinds of urethane, even a cold temperature apply that is not heated. Temperature has a huge impact on the adhesion qualities of the windshield. I would recommend never getting your windshield replaced in temperatures lower than 55 degrees, or higher than 105 for the best results if possible. This is easy if you have the glass replaced inside of a shop or in a shaded area. Direct sunlight can heat the windshield to over 125 degrees!

Urethane does have an expiration date, so make sure you ask about this before a technician begins replacing your vehicle glass. Using expired urethane means minimal bonding power and the windshield has a chance of coming out during an impact. All urethane is made with an expiration date printed on the tubes, and if they don’t call someone else!

Paint Scratches, Rust, and Proper Windshield Installation

Deep vehicle scratches can turn into major problems later. Moisture will enter through a scratch and attack your vehicles body causing rust later. For people who live by the ocean, this can be disastrous for the structural integrity of your vehicle down the road near the windshield. If you are buying a used vehicle, make sure you check around the edge of the glass and under the trim …

7 Pirates of the Burning Sea Tips You Need to Know

Pirates of the Burning Sea is a complex game. It’s easy for players to overlook some of the simplest game options as they play. We’ve come with a list of 7 simple things you can do to make your gaming experience much better. Make more money, kill enemies easier, and level up quicker by using the following tips:

1. AUTO-FIRE: If you hold down control and then left-click on your ‘Fire Cannons’ icon in your tool-bar, you can set your guns to fire as soon as they are loaded. They will only fire on targets you have selected, so make sure you know who you want to fire at before you try this.

2. DUAL BROADSIDES: You can not only set your guns to auto-fire, but you can also fire on targets that you have not selected. If you have one target selected and are firing at it, but another comes into range on the other side of your ship, you can fire at them as well just by double right-clicking them. This is great when the enemy is all around you and you want to maximize your firepower.

3. HALF-STRENGTH BROADSIDE: You don’t have to wait until your guns are all reloaded. If your gunners are half-loaded (signified by the small circle near the battery icon), you can hold down ALT and left-click on the battery you want to fire. Very good if you are getting to the point where every shot counts.

4. PARTIAL AUCTION HOUSE ORDERS: The Auction House in POTBS is not like other games. There are no ‘buyout’ prices, and if you offer more than the item’s price, that’s how much it will sell for. But, you usually find a good deal on multiple items if you select the ‘partial’ option. Try to pick up partial orders for fractions of the price, as people will often try to get rid of small lots just to make room in their inventory.

5. PRIVATE CHAT: If you want to send someone a private message, just click on their name in the chat window.

6. GENERAL SKILLS TRAINER: You can improve your Sailing, Maneuvering and Gunnery focus skills by visiting the General Trainer located in your nation’s capital. Improving these skills requires 1 skill point, but it is very much worth the expense.

7. AVOID THE JUNK DEALER: A lot of players first buy their ammunition and consumables from the Junk Dealer. DON’T!! You can get these items for much less at the Auction House. Even if you have to make a short trip to a nearby port to get them, it’s almost always better than getting them from the Junk Dealer.



Source by Alistair McMaster

Assess the Effectiveness of Anti-Natal Policies in Less Developed Countries

Globally, many Less Developed Countries(LDCs) implement anti-natal policies, the objective being to decrease crude birth rate and total fertility rate so that the population size can be brought down. Such measures are usually employed when an LDC is experiencing an unsustainably high rate of natural increase such that governments worry that the country’s carrying capacity may be exceeded. In other words, it is partly to try to improve standards of living.

Anti-natal policies range from harsh to softer methods in their range of cases. A world famous case would be the “One-child policy” of China implemented since the 1970s when they were still very much a poverty-stricken LDC and far from being the world’s 2nd largest economy. Deng Xiaoping had publicly announced that for China to reach its economic development goals by the 21st century, population size would have to be slashed to 1.2 billion. Under his ideology harsh measures like forced sterilisation and abortion were employed ruthlessly. The National Population and Family Planning Commission runs the policy and with their notorious 300,000 full-time workers and 80 million volunteers, they ensured household visits and assessments were done regularly especially in the rural villages. The policy covered about 35% of the Chinese population and contraceptives were easily available. Couples could only have one child, or in the countryside two if the first was a girl. Hefty fines of 10,000 yuan were imposed for a second and subsequent child. There were also some areas having the ‘One-child glory certificate”, entitling couples who adhered to the rule with cash bonuses, longer maternity leave, cheaper child care, preferential housing. Extra month’s salary is given until the child is 14 and discounted healthcare, cheaper fertiliser and even loans of $100,000 yuan to refurbish their houses as they wish.

Given its plethora of measures, it was expected that this policy achieved absolute success. Statistically, it has achieved the best reduction in fertility rate as from 1970 to 1979 TFR fell than more than half from 5.8 to 2.7 and subsequently preventing about 400 million births from 1979 to 2011, equivalent to the size of Europe. It was also extremely successful in urban areas like Beijing and Shanghai as it was implemented at an optimal time, when the desire to improve socio-economic conditions outweighed the desire for large families. In such urban cities, raising a child requires about 50,000 RMB for a comfortable life and many know it is not an easy decision. As a result the urban coastal cities in particular quite willingly lowered their TFR to 1.5-1.6, significantly lower than China’s national average. This led to an improvement in standards of living as carrying capacity was better able to support smaller population with existing resources. As such the trend for these cities has already been set, leading to prevalence of nuclear families and even the “little-emperor syndrome”.

That being acknowledged, many feel that this policy was a failure in intangible terms especially where morales are concerned. It is surprising that even 30 years later this barbaric experiment in social engineering is still in force. It has served to distort gender balances by contributing to female infanticide and sex-selective abortions, such that nationally, there are only 100 girls to 118 boys. In rural villages, the figure is much more worrying at 100 girls to 133 boys. It has also received widespread criticism for its complete disregard of basic human rights by forcing village women to undergo sterilization and abortions such that in some villages, up to 98% of women have had IUD implantations, often without their knowledge as they had been done when they were unconscious after forced procedures. In Bobai county in west Guangxi, officials launched a vicious crackdown and rounded up 17,000 women before subjecting them to such forced procedures, extracting 7.8 million yuan as fines, ransacking the homes of those who refused payment. Perhaps a more evident failure is the fact the policy is already causing harm to China itself as it is evidently reducing their economic comparative advantage of surplus labour and being the “factory of the world”. Labour crunches can be seen as the pearl river delta is short of 2 million workers while the Wenzhou hub is short of 1 million. Chinese wages are increasing about 4% annually and minimum wage in Guangzhou has been raised to over 1,000 yuan from a previous 860. It will be counterproductive if the policy is not controlled and ends up affecting FDI into the country.

LDCs generally are unable to implement their anti-natal policies with much success due to the inherent weaknesses in governance and national foundation that causes inability to handle various complex issues well. In Nigeria for e.g., the 1988 National Population Policy was pretty much a failure. Contraception was promoted and it has to be acknowledged, first, that perhaps the …

What Are The Selling Points Of Tablets On The Market Today?

There are many tablets available to the consumer today. It can be confusing deciding what to buy as there are many selling points of tablets on the market today. To understand the selling points, you should decide what you want to use it for, and then look for the features you want.

The first consideration is the style of tablet. The slate is a basic touchscreen, without a keyboard. There are convertible tablet PC’s; a slate with an attached keyboard. The slate can swivel independent of the keyboard. There are hybrids, with a detachable keyboard, and booklets, or two tablets which can be folded together like a book. Finally there are rugged tablets, made for tough conditions and very portable. One of the basic features of any tablet is the operating system (OS). These include Android, Android 2.2, Android 2.3, Android 3.0, Android 3.1, Android 3.2, HP webOS, Windows 7 Home Premium, Windows 7 Pro, Blackberry OS, iOS 4. The operating system will determine which applications are available on each tablet.

Another basic feature is screen size. Screen size affects how easily some tasks can be accomplished. If you want to read, you may require a different size screen than if you want to work on databases or word processing. The screen sizes vary from 7" to 12", measure diagonally. Along with screen size, the resolution also varies, from 800 x 480 to 1024 x 600. This measures how many pixels fill the screen. The higher the number, the finer the image.

Another consideration when choosing a tablet is the capacity of the hard drive. This determines how much information can be stored on the tablet. These range from 4 GB to 64 GB. Large storage means you can carry more music, photos, videos, books and applications in the tablet. Four gigabytes is plenty for text, books, and spreadsheets. If you plan on storing video, audio, or other large files, choose more storage capacity. Many tablets have a slot for memory cards, increasing the storage to 32 GB.

CPU speed determines how fast the tablet starts up, processes information, and switches from one application to another. These range from 533 MHz to 1.88 GHz. The slower speeds are sufficient for reading and surfing the net. If you want to play games, go for higher CPU speeds. Battery life and weight are the last two considerations. Since they are portable devices, one would expect a reasonable time of use before the battery must be recharged. Again, they vary in battery life from five to ten hours. Weight is an important consideration, although they are all lighter than a laptop, and therefore more portable. The weights range from just under a pound to two-and-a-half pounds.

All tablets are Wi-Fi enabled, meaning that you can access the Internet, download books, search the Web, send and receive emails. Many are equipped with cameras, some with both front and rear facing cameras, and many are able to record video. Some tablets are also able to access 3G or 4G cell networks. This means that, like a cell phone, you can access the web from anywhere that has cell coverage; almost everywhere. Those with 3G or 4G capability often include GPS in the package, making these tablets true traveling companions.



Source by Paul J. Malcolm

The Car Rental Industry

Market Overview

The car rental industry is a multi-billion dollar sector of the US economy. The US segment of the industry averages about $18.5 billion in revenue a year. Today, there are approximately 1.9 million rental vehicles that service the US segment of the market. In addition, there are many rental agencies besides the industry leaders that subdivide the total revenue, namely Dollar Thrifty, Budget and Vanguard. Unlike other mature service industries, the rental car industry is highly consolidated which naturally puts potential new comers at a cost-disadvantage since they face high input costs with reduced possibility of economies of scale. Moreover, most of the profit is generated by a few firms including Enterprise, Hertz and Avis. For the fiscal year of 2004, Enterprise generated $7.4 billion in total revenue. Hertz came in second position with about $5.2 billion and Avis with $2.97 in revenue.

Level of Integration

The rental car industry faces a completely different environment than it did five years ago. According to Business Travel News, vehicles are being rented until they have accumulated 20,000 to 30,000 miles until they are relegated to the used car industry whereas the turn-around mileage was 12,000 to 15,000 miles five years ago. Because of slow industry growth and narrow profit margin, there is no imminent threat to backward integration within the industry. In fact, among the industry players only Hertz is vertically integrated through Ford.

Scope of Competition

There are many factors that shape the competitive landscape of the car rental industry. Competition comes from two main sources throughout the chain. On the vacation consumer’s end of the spectrum, competition is fierce not only because the market is saturated and well guarded by industry leader Enterprise, but competitors operate at a cost disadvantage along with smaller market shares since Enterprise has established a network of dealers over 90 percent the leisure segment. On the corporate segment, on the other hand, competition is very strong at the airports since that segment is under tight supervision by Hertz. Because the industry underwent a massive economic downfall in recent years, it has upgraded the scale of competition within most of the companies that survived. Competitively speaking, the rental car industry is a war-zone as most rental agencies including Enterprise, Hertz and Avis among the major players engage in a battle of the fittest.

Growth

Over the past five years, most firms have been working towards enhancing their fleet sizes and increasing the level of profitability. Enterprise currently the company with the largest fleet in the US has added 75,000 vehicles to its fleet since 2002 which help increase its number of facilities to 170 at the airports. Hertz, on the other hand, has added 25,000 vehicles and broadened its international presence in 150 counties as opposed to 140 in 2002. In addition, Avis has increased its fleet from 210,000 in 2002 to 220,000 despite recent economic adversities. Over the years following the economic downturn, although most companies throughout the industry were struggling, Enterprise among the industry leaders had been growing steadily. For example, annual sales reached $6.3 in 2001, $6.5 in 2002, $6.9 in 2003 and $7.4 billion in 2004 which translated into a growth rate of 7.2 percent a year for the past four years. Since 2002, the industry has started to regain its footing in the sector as overall sales grew from $17.9 billion to $18.2 billion in 2003. According to industry analysts, the better days of the rental car industry have yet to come. Over the course of the next several years, the industry is expected to experience accelerated growth valued at $20.89 billion each year following 2008 “which equates to a CAGR of 2.7 % [increase] in the 2003-2008 period.”

Distribution

Over the past few years the rental car industry has made a great deal of progress to facilitate it distribution processes. Today, there are approximately 19,000 rental locations yielding about 1.9 million rental cars in the US. Because of the increasingly abundant number of car rental locations in the US, strategic and tactical approaches are taken into account in order to insure proper distribution throughout the industry. Distribution takes place within two interrelated segments. On the corporate market, the cars are distributed to airports and hotel surroundings. On the leisure segment, on the other hand, cars are distributed to agency owned facilities that are conveniently located within most major roads and metropolitan areas.

In the past, managers of rental car companies used to rely on gut-feelings or intuitive guesses to make decisions about how many cars to have in a particular fleet or the utilization level and performance standards of keeping certain cars in one fleet. With that methodology, it was very difficult to maintain a level of balance that would satisfy consumer demand and the desired level of …

How to Determine the Value of a Used Forklift

Assigning a monetary value to a used forklift for sale proves to be a difficult task at best. As a seller, you want to make a small profit out of your initial investment, but not scare off potential buyers with an overpriced offer. As a buyer, you do not want to overvalue or overpay a forklift that may need additional maintenance, parts or other expenses.

Pricing is subjective and depends on many factors. When determining the value of a forklift, note down all the information you know about it so you can see where to make price deductions, and where the price could increase due to a special feature or recent part replacement.

Forklift Age (In Years)

The age of the forklift is one of the biggest determining factors when it comes to price. Because machine prices (like car values) depreciate at an almost exponential rate from the sticker price when they’re brand new, you can look up a new model of your machine and deduct the price from there. On average, a forklift will depreciate up to 15% per year. Use this as your base price before you start adding or deducting value based on other factors.

Usage & History

You can have two of the exact same forklifts made in the same year that have vastly different value because one’s usage and treatment history is a lot better than the other. For example, if you have a 2007-made forklift that was running 20 hours per day lifting heavy concrete in freezing cold temperatures, and an identical model that was only used 7-8 hours per day lifting lighter loads in an e-commerce warehouse, the second will have a much higher value than the first.

Forklift usage is logged in hours, and the way you compare forklift hours for the machine’s value is very similar to the way you would compare mileage on cars of the same age. Key hours on a forklift count the number of hours the forklift has been turned on, but deadman hours (often considered the more accurate measure) count the number of hours an operator has actually used the forklift to either lift or transport materials.

Features

Extra features almost always add value to your forklift. For example, if your forklift has a computerized control panel instead of a standard manual one, this will add value. Other features that add value include scales that weigh your loads automatically and in transit, attachments sold with the forklift, and air conditioned cabs, to name a few. Basically, anything that does not come standard on a new model is considered an additional feature that adds value.

To calculate the value any one feature adds, figure out the new price of this feature if you were to add it onto a current forklift, then deduct some value for age and the fact that it is being sold as a package deal with a used forklift.

Current Condition

The current condition of a forklift depends on how well it was taken care of until the point of re-sale. A machine with the paint job still intact will be worth hundreds of dollars more than the same model that has rust spots all over. The seller of a machine with a clean, well-maintained engine can ask for a higher price than a guy who ran his machine ragged and now has problems getting it to start. Additionally, any parts that have recently been replaced add a little bit of value to the machine because the buyer knows they’re getting something that won’t cost them extra money right away.

The most important thing to do when determining the value of a forklift is to communicate all the details of the forklift’s past and maintenance upkeep. When you have all the details present, you can make the most informed decisions about value calculations and the overall worth of the machine. Keep in mind that there are no set rules for exactly how much a used forklift should cost, and a lot will also depend on the supply and demand of used forklifts in your area.



Source by Jessica Howle

How to Inventory and Assign Value to Estate Personal Property

There is an old saying that goes: What is the best way to eat an elephant? One bite at a time!

Personal property is the elephant of an estate. It is the responsibility that can take up most of your time, and it provides the estate with the least amount of money for the effort involved. But, dealing with the personal property cannot be avoided. The property must be inventoried, valued, distributed, or sold. Let us start our analysis by looking at what property we have (inventory); then we will determine what it is worth (valuation). In a future post, we will determine what to do with it (distribution/sale).

When you go to the courthouse, the clerk will provide you with the form you will need to fill out for the inventory. The form will ask you to provide general categories and a value for each category you have listed. For example, you would list: furniture, $1500; office equipment, $300, etc.. You will not have to list the items separately, such as sofa, $100; chair, $5; typewriter, $25. I suggest that you do keep a list of the individual items, though. Although you will not have to go into a lot of detail for the court, you will likely want a more detailed inventory for yourself. You will want this for two reasons: to track the sale of estate property, and to protect yourself against claims of heirs and/or creditors.

You do not have to get real fancy with with the inventory; pencil and paper will do. If you are so inclined, there are home inventory record books available at office supply stores, or you can purchase software online. There are also companies that specialize in taking home inventories.

You will need a helper. One person sorts and counts while the other writes. Start inside the house, and work your way from the top of the house to the bottom. Go room to room with a consistent pattern so that you do not miss anything: always clockwise or counter-clockwise around the room. Write down what is on the walls as well, not just what is on the floor. For small goods, write down identifiable groups of items such as 200 hardcover books, 100 paperback books, 42 nick-knacks, etc.. On your list, put a star next to any item that you think may be valuable. If the nick-knacks are porcelain and the books are first editions, they are valuable items. When you are finished, follow the same procedure for the outbuildings: the garage, shed, workshop, or whatever. If there is a rented self-storage unit, vacation home, recreational vehicle or boat, they will need to be inventoried as well.

When you file the inventory at the courthouse, you will need to state a value for the personal property. For run-of-the-mill household items, a good resource for determining the value is the software program It’s Deductible that comes bundled with the income tax program Turbo Tax. It’s Deductible can also be purchased separately. The software lists the thrift shop value for most household items, and it is easy to use.

For the items that you have identified as being valuable, It’s Deductible will not work. There are several ways to determine the value of single items or collections. A good place to start is eBay ( http://www.ebay.com ). To use eBay to help set your values, you will need to be a registered user. Registering for eBay is free; just follow the instructions when you get to the website. Once registered, type in the item you are researching, and eBay will search for the item. When the search results come up, scroll down and look on the left side of the page to where it says Search Options, click on completed listings, then scroll down further and click on Show Items. The search results displayed will be for completed auctions, not for auctions in progress. The prices listed in green are items that actually sold; the prices in red are for items that did not sell. If you find your item listed, and the price is green, you have a good value. Compare the details of the item you found on eBay with the details of the item you have. Use the closest match as your value.

If you are unable to find your item listed on eBay, it is time to go to the library or bookstore. There you will find an assortment of price guides for every sort of antique or collectible. You will also find blue books for automobiles and equipment.

If you have lots of items and no time to research, then it is time to call in an expert. In your local phone book you will find jewelers, antique dealers, auctioneers, appraisers, and other professionals who will tell …

Autel Maxidas DS708 Review – Pros And Cons Of a Vehicle Scanner

Are you are planning to buy an Autel Maxidas DS708 vehicle scanner to diagnose any problems with a vehicle? If you own a car repair shop then one of these is absolutely necessary for your work. This vehicle diagnostic system costs upwards of $1000 depending on who you buy it from and therefore you need to be absolutely certain that it will meet your needs.

It has to be admitted that the advantages of the Autel Maxidas DS708 vehicle diagnostic system are many in number. They include:

• Coverage of a large number of automobile makes from domestic and foreign car manufacturers. Interestingly, if a particular car model does not feature on this scanner’s database, then you could always program the scanner to use a similar vehicle’s features.

• Fast and accurate diagnosis with intuitive features ensuring that problems with various components and sensors of the vehicle can be identified correctly. The sensor is able to scan various vehicular systems such as air conditioning, airbags, navigation etc.

• Wi-Fi feature with enables the scanner to have increased functionality

• Offers regular software updates to include newer models of cars as well as fix existing bugs.

The drawbacks of the Autel Maxidas DS708 include the fact that it takes some time to get used to. The menu options are sometimes very confusing, especially at the outset. However, these are minor problems considering that the user can quickly work around them. As a matter of fact, most people who buy this device are very clear that they do not mind dealing with these problems considering that there are so many advantages offered by the device.

The Launch x431 Diagun is another excellent scanner that has been getting rave reviews from users. It has a great many useful features that ensure ease and versatility of use. This scanner also has a large memory thanks to a 4GB card that it comes with. At the same time, you do need to be aware of the fact that enhanced memory alone will not be of much use unless it comes along with a large database. In fact, this is the main factor that causes the Autel Maxidas DS708 to score higher than it.

Overall, each scanner has its own strengths and weaknesses. It is best to buy one only after considering all factors so that you can get the best performance from it. After all, the quality of service you offer to your customers will depend on your ability to diagnose the problems with their vehicles.



Source by Manzoor Mohammed

Inspection Checklist When Buying Used Trucks

If you do not have enough budget, you might think of considering buying a used pickup truck. But prior to doing so, you need to arm yourself with great knowledge and advice. Do not rush. You must know your exact price range first and do not deviate from your original plan.

Apart from that, you must also find out if the seller has maintenance records. Consider asking the seller if you can spend around 45 to 60 minutes with the truck. During this time, meticulously inspect the truck you want to buy.

Truck Inspection Checklist

First, you must examine the truck only during daylight. Be reminded that even when the place it well-lit, defects can still be concealed. Moreover, be on level ground when checking the fluids.

Second, check the opening as well as the body-panel joint for fit. Consider running your hand along the doors’ bottom area and check for rusty edges. From back to front, check the panels and the body. If they seem uneven, use a magnet when checking them. If you notice any raised spots on the roof, this means that there is rust underneath. And this will require a more extensive inspection to the area if you really want to buy such vehicle.

Third, raise the hood. Consider removing the radiator cap and check the coolant fluid. Oftentimes, this will be greenish in color. When the color seems wrong, the engine may overheat. Today, there is already a cheap tester you can invest in. Check also the air filter for excessive dirt. If there are plenty of oil or grease deposited on the engine, this indicates that it was not well cared for. If you are considering of buying a vehicle with an automatic transmission, you have to check the transmission dip stick. You need to back away if the stick has a burnt smell as this means transmission trouble.

Fourth, start the engine. Check for knocks or thuds as these sounds indicate a connecting-rod bearing and a bad crankshaft. Both of these may mean costly repairs. Trucks must have a high idle setting. In case the idle doesn’t seem right, consider having the engine checked by a reputable mechanic. Check also all the switches and extras on the car like air and lights.

Fifth, drive the car, shut the engine off, cool it off for a moment, and start the engine once again. When the engine does not start the second time, have a mechanic check it. It would be a smart idea to take someone with you on a test drive because the extra rider can notice things such as wind noise and rattle that the driver often can’t.



Source by Edna L Liamson

Automobile Accident Litigation: Overturning the Unfavorable Police Report

Introduction: The Police Report is against your client. Now what? Over the last sixteen years of practicing personal injury and automobile accident law, it has been our experience that the quality of traffic accident investigations has steadily declined, leaving many injured people further harmed by a poor or incomplete police report. The reasons are as follows: government budget issues, poor police officer training, and a lack of commitment to performing a complete accident investigation. Certain well meaning police officers are just not qualified to investigate a complicated catastrophic car, truck or pedestrian injury or death case.

If the police report is against your client an insurance adjuster may not want to make a reasonable settlement offer. As a result the case may be difficult to resolve in a positive way for an injured client. A lawsuit may need to be filed and depositions of the witnesses, drivers, and investigating police officers taken to rebut the police report’s conclusion. If the facts can be developed, it is the attorney’s job to show the insurance adjuster, a judge or jury that the police officer got it wrong.

As we unpack the issues involved in overturning the unfavorable police report we will be discussing the following topics:

A. What is a Traffic Collision Report?

B. Who Has Standing to Obtain a Copy of the Traffic Collision Report?

C. Is the Primary Reporting Officer’s Opinion Admissible at Trial?

D. Are the Witness Statements Within a Police Report Admissible at Trial?

E. Proving the Primary Reporting Officer’s Opinion Is Wrong.

A. What is a Traffic Collision Report?

The Traffic Collision Report or CHP 555 is the standard reporting tool for most all police officer traffic investigators in California. It is intended to satisfy the basic data requirement needs of all users of traffic collision information.

The box on page 2 of the CHP 555 identifies the Primary Collision Factor. Primary Collision factor is defined by the CHP as; “PRIMARY COLLISION FACTOR. Select the one element or driving action which in the officer’s opinion, best describes the primary or main cause of the collision. Whenever possible, this should be a Vehicle Code (VC) violation.”

The term Other Associated Factor is defined by the CHP as; “OTHER ASSOCIATED FACTORS(S). When a secondary violation has been determined to have contributed to the collision, write the VC section in the appropriate box.”

B. Who Has Standing to Obtain a Copy of the Traffic Collision Report?

Drivers involved in car accidents are required by statute to file reports with the California Highway Patrol or local police department, Vehicle Code section 20008. People with a “proper interest” can obtain copies of a police report, Vehicle Code section 20012.

The parties involved in the accident or any other persons having a “proper interest” may obtain copies of a police report. This includes persons involved in later accidents at the same location because the reports may disclose highway conditions causing or contributing to their own accident. See, California ex rel. Dept. of Transp. v. Sup.Ct. (Hall), 37 C3d at 855.

C. Is the Primary Reporting Officer’s Opinion Admissible at Trial?

There are two distinctions regarding admissibility. First is the admissibility of the report itself. The second issue is the admissibility of an officer’s ultimate opinion or conclusion. These are both separate and distinct evidentiary issues.

California Vehicle Code section 20013 states, “No such accident report shall be used as evidence in any trial, civil or criminal, arising out of an accident. The rule against admitting police reports into evidence is well established, Fernandez v. Di Salvo Appliance Co, 179 Cal App 2d 240; Summers v. Burdick 191 Cal App 2d 464 at 470. The policy behind Vehicle Code section 20013 is to protect against the danger of the jury giving more weight to the police report’s conclusion simply because of its “official” character. There is a danger that the “official” police report alone may be relied upon to determine the verdict. As a result the contents of a traffic collision report should be excluded. Sherrell v. Kelso 116 Cal App 3d Supp 22 at 31.

However a police officer witness disclosed in conformity with a California Evidence Code section 2034 demand, who also qualifies as an expert witness, with sufficient experience and training, may give an opinion on the factors involved in causing an accident. Hart v. Wielt 4 Cal App 3d 224. In Hart a 13 year veteran of the California Highway Patrol, with extensive training and schooling in accident investigation was allowed to given an opinion on the proper speed given the conditions. The case involved a vehicle which slid out of control while maneuvering a sharp curve on State Highway 32 going towards Chester. Before the officer gave his opinion on speed the trial judge admonished …

4 Advantages of a Gasoline Powered Car

Although there has been a sharp increase in the availability of hybrid and electric cars, gasoline powered cars still dominate the automobile market. Despite the continuous price increases on gas these vehicles has retained its advantages.

The four advantages of these vehicles are revealed below.

1. Accessible Source of Fuel

Gasoline powered cars can be refilled everywhere. You can easily find a gas station even on the country side and rural areas. Their services are available 24 hours a day and seven days a week.

In addition to this, these gas stations also offer other services such as change oil, car wash, and tire check up. There are also gas stations that sell vehicle parts.

2. Lower Maintenance Costs

Gas fueled cars require lower maintenance costs. Spare parts and replacement kits are readily available on car service centers. There are also slightly used parts sold at lower prices. Surplus parts are used as replacements for the broken ones. Instead of buying expensive brand new parts, you can use the slightly used as replacements.

3. Accessible Car Accessories Shops

Since gas-powered cars were around for several decades, there are a lot of shops that sell car accessories. They attend to car owner’s needs in upgrading and enhancing their vehicles. Some of the offered in these shops are fashionable seat covers, cool steering wheels, and car audio systems.

4. Accessible Service Centers

Just like gas stations, service centers that repair defective cars are almost everywhere. Technicians and experts attend to the needed repairs of the car. Car engine check-ups, troubleshooting, and car upgrades are also performed here.

Services offered in service centers are not only for minor car repairs. Their staffs are also capable of doing complicated car works such as engine overhauling, under chassis repairs, and engine upgrades.

These are the advantages of the gas-powered car. To cope up with the increasing gas prices, car manufacturers try to create fuel-efficient cars. As a matter of fact, the latest car models are now equipped with gadgets that reduces the fuel consumption. In addition to this, latest cars are built with reduced greenhouse gas emissions.



Source by Nancy Stewarts