Month: June 2017

The Role of Mobile Libraries in Supporting Education

Introduction

A Mobile library refers to a suitably equipped and reinforced vehicle or bus that visits schools according to a regular schedule, with a resources collection that may be borrowed by learners and teachers. It can also be used to refresh a school’s resource collection by issuing of block loans. This model of library is operated from a central library/depot of resources, such as regional or district education resource center. The mobile library service was initiated chiefly to alleviate the demands for library service at the main libraries by reaching out to the general population with the sole aim of providing accurate and current information to meet the needs in rural schools.

Butdisuwan (2000), defined Mobile library as a library that serves communities and locations that are distant from a local library. They are mostly run from Monday to Friday and sometimes on Saturdays.

Knight (2006), defined Mobile Library as a large vehicle for use as a library. It is designed to hold books on shelves so that the books can easily be accessed by readers when the vehicle is parked. The vehicle used usually has enough space for people to read the book inside of it. They are often used to provide library service to villages and city suburbs which have no library buildings. They can also serve groups of those who have difficulty accessing library services.

Niemand (2004), defined Mobile library as a library housed in a large van that provides a live service to those unable to attend their nearest local library.

Requirements for the Operation of a Mobile Library

Some of the requirements needed for the operation of a such services are highlighted thus:

• A teacher-Librarian to manage the overall service;

• Library assistant and a driver;

• Funding for fuel, maintenance and licensing;

• Optional online information and circulation services, linked to parent education library management system, by means of a laptop and scanner;

• A service level agreement with schools involved that clearly articulates the role and responsibilities between the schools and the providers of the service;

• A schedule of regular visits, based on school terms;

• A dedicated budget for collection development and running costs;

• Ongoing training for teachers who have access to the collection; and a

• Monitoring and reporting mechanism (Knight, 2006).

The Role of Mobile Libraries in supporting education

Libraries and information centres do not exist in vacuum. There is always a sound rationale for their operations. Hence the following reasons below express the importance of mobile libraries:

• Move on to service other schools as schools progress towards developing their own school library and information service;

• The school’s library resource is refreshed regularly by mobile library service since the selection is based on the needs of the schools that are visited;

• This service is useful especially in the rural schools, when there is a lack of large organizational capacity and a lack of space to establish a proper library;

• Engage in the sharing of resources which enables learners and teachers to access a wide range of resources;

• Assist the teachers in growing learners to become information literate and develop the reading habit;

• Have other learning interventions such as music, arts, science and technology learning Programmes as part of the School Library and Information Service Programme, which will benefit all learners.

• Target user groups and their information needs in remote communities or other regions where library services are currently unable to stimulate or meet the demand for information;

• Stretch out their services to reach the physically disabled;

• Mobile libraries make reading materials available to various schools based on their different learning needs. Picture books with less complex illustrations, words and information books with many photographs are selected for a class at the preparatory level;

• They play a vital role in times of crises by directing many stakeholders such as citizens, experts and policy makers by providing trustworthy sources of information;

• Building lasting ties with the school community through establishing sustainable partnership by helping to inculcate the habit and culture of reading in the communities;

• Provide read-aloud session and user-education programmes especially when new users are introduced to their services; and

• Provide reference materials such as encyclopedias, dictionaries, maps, atlases, and globes for extensive source of information and references for their patrons (Beenham and Harrison, 1990).

Challenges Faced in the Operating Mobile Library Services

Mobile Libraries operations are not without challenges. These range from a lot of issues as stated below:

• Resources are limited and there is a chance that the appropriate resources could be selected by another school first. Mobile Library is medium is size and referral in nature and most times can accommodate less than fifty (50) users at a time. It also …

The Advantages And Disadvantages Of The Three Major Types Of GPS Vehicle Tracking

There are three major types of GPS vehicle tracking; cellular based tracking, wireless passive tracking and satellite based real-time GPS tracking. This article will outline the advantages and disadvantages associated with all three types of GPS Vehicle Tracking.

Cellular Based Tracking

The initial costs for setting up the system are slightly lower than the other two options. With cellular based tracking average costs are about $500. A cellular based tracking system transmits information about where a vehicle is every five minutes over a land network. The average monthly costs are about thirty-five dollars for airtime and for the information to be displayed over the internet.

Wireless Passive Tracking

A major advantage to this type of tracking system is that there is no monthly fee, so once the system is set up there will be no other costs associated with it. However, setting up the system is a little expensive. The average is about $700 for the hardware, and $800 for the software and database. With this type of system most people say the disadvantage is that the information about where the vehicle has been can only be found out when the vehicle returns back to the companies base. This is a major drawback especially for companies that are looking for a tracking system that will tell them where their vehicle is if it has been stolen or in an accident. However many systems are now inserting wireless modems to their devices so that tracking information can be viewed without having the memory card from the vehicle. With wireless modem wireless passive tracking systems are also able to collect information about how fast the vehicle is traveling, stops made and other detailed information. With this new addition many companies feel this system is a perfect fit because there is still no monthly bill.

Satellite Based Real-Time Tracking

This type of system gives less detailed information, but it works nationwide, which makes it a good choice for shipping and trucking companies. The costs for setting up the system average around $700. The monthly fees for this system vary from five dollars up to one hundred dollars; based on how detailed a company wants the reports to be.

New Technology

In the next few years GPS tracking will be able to provide companies with a number of other advantages. Some companies have already set up a way to have a customers sign and run credit cards onsite through the unit. Others are setting up ways for dispatchers to send re-routing information directly to a drivers GPS unit. Another new advancement for GPS systems is that they will have internet access and stored information about the vehicle so that a driver or mechanic can use the GPS unit to look up diagrams to help them fix the vehicle. In addition to this all of the information will be stored and saved in the companies database.



Source by Chris Simons

Auto Air Conditioning Repair 101

When your car or truck A/C is not blowing “cold air”, the first thought is to panic. $$$$ signs are going through your mind. Your A/C is broken and the repair is going to be expensive. This article takes the mystery out of automotive air conditioning and serves as a primer so that you can make common repairs yourself and save MONEY on professional repairs.

A/C Principles

There are books and publications that contain volumes of information on the subject of air conditioning repair. This information is often too technical for the you to learn how-to fix your auto air conditioning system.

In the nutshell, here is all that you need to know about the fundamentals of refrigeration so that you can fix your auto air conditioning system yourself.

Air conditioning is the process in which air inside the passenger compartment is cooled, dried, and circulated. Heat is removed from inside the vehicle and transferred to the outside air.

All air conditioners whether, it is an auto A/C, household refrigerator or home HVAC, work on the same principles. Namely, a liquid refrigerant is changed to a gas and then back to a liquid. If a change-of-state of the refrigerant is to take place, heat transfer must take place. The two (2) rules that apply to refrigerant are:

1. Refrigerant in a gaseous state collects, absorbs, and holds heat.

2. Refrigerant in a liquid state releases that heat.

A/C Operation and Components

For your auto A/C to blow “cold air”, R-134A refrigerant must pass through and change state in three (3) components, one (1) receiver-dryer, and one (1) expansion valve that makes up the closed auto air conditioning system. The components of the system are:

1. Compressor – A device that pressurizes the heated refrigerant..

2. Condenser – A radiator for refrigerant that transfers the heat that was absorbed in the passenger compartment to the cooler air.

3. Evaporator – Is a small radiator located under dash in the passenger compartment. Liquid refrigerant entering the evaporator creates a pressure loss. The liquid refrigerant absorbs heat from the air blowing across the evaporator. It then boils and changes state to vapor before it enters the suction port of the compressor.

4. Receiver-Dryer – Is a canister that stores the liquid refrigerant when the compressor is not running. It contains a desiccant that removes moisture from the system.

5. Expansion Valve – Is a metering device that controls the amount of refrigerant to the evaporator.

A/C Quick Check

A check that can easily be made to check the health of the A/C system is the “feel check”. With engine running, turn the auto A/C control to “ON” and the blower on “high”. Take a test drive to warm the engine until the A/C system pressures stabilize. Raise the hood. With the A/C “On”, locate the large tubing connected and routed from the compressor (low side) to the expansion valve (inlet side) of the evaporator. Next, locate the small tubing that is connected to the discharge-side of the compressor and routed to the outlet side of the evaporator. When you feel these two (2) lines, you should observe these results:

1. The low-side line should feel “cool” to the touch.

2. The high-side line should feel “warm” to the touch.

If the high-side tubing is not warm and the low-side is not cool, further tests will have to be made as the system is not doing any work. There is an internal problem; such as, a defective component or a leak in your A/C system.

Testing A/C System

Before system temperature tests can be made, a checklist should be followed (below) to setup for testing the A/C system:

1. Set the A/C “ON-OFF” switch to “ON”.

2. Set the temperature control to “maximum cooling”.

3. Set the blower on “high” or the highest number on the control switch.

4. Temperature inside passenger compartment should be stable and getting cooler.

5. Engine speed must be a minimum of 1500 rpm’s.

6. All windows should be be in the “UP” position.

Check Temperature

Your compact car or truck has a small capacity A/C system and a loss of “cooling” would be more noticeable than a larger capacity auto A/C system. If a noticeable loss of “cooling” capacity is noticed, a temperature check at the vent registers should be made. This check can be made with an instant read or digital temperature thermometer.. The discharge air from the vents in the passenger compartment should range from 38 to 42 degrees F.

A/C System Diagnosis

Assuming that the discharge air test measured at the vent registers is out-of-range, a system pressure test will have to be made. Professional A/C technicians connect a tool known as the manifold gauge set to the “low” and “high” side service valves of …

Auto Transport & Car Shipping Industry Exposed

Auto transport industry is run by 90% by the brokers! The majority of auto transport companies don’t own car trailers. They don’t have the staff or budget to market themselves to the public or the customer service team to provide support to their clients. They typically rely on word of mouth or local advertising to get the business. Carriers deeply rely on the brokers to fill up their trucks and keep them moving.

Auto transport brokers have access to hundreds of transporters and can generally accommodate you on any location you may need to get your car picked up or delivered to. Working with a reputable broker may help you get a better price or find a company you wouldn’t otherwise find on your own. The broker may also provide you with a more competitive price quote and offer you better support. Many of the drivers are one man operations or are under-staffed to provide you with quality customer service.

How the auto transport industry works?

When you get a quote from different companies/brokers – they all compete for your business. But the reality is you are actually bidding for the drivers to move your car. If your quote is too low, you car will not be picked or it may take few weeks for the delivery.

Here is an example on how this works: let’s say the route is (NJ to FL). There is usually 20-40 cars waiting to be picked up on the dispatch board which is used by all truckers in the industry. They are all priced from high to low. The drivers will be more attracted to loads that are paying more. So if you picked the lowest quote and there are 10 cars all quoted higher on the list, your car will be sitting at your driveway for awhile. Your load will be the last to get picked up, or you simply may never get a driver assigned while a dishonest broker promises you the world and takes your money.

How to get the right auto transport quote?

In the industry where money talks – your budget will determine the price to get your vehicle picked up and delivered. Choosing the lowest car transport rates is not always recommended. We constantly hear complaints from consumers who first dealt with low balled quotes and than went with a higher quote – got their vehicles picked up with 2-4 business days.

Search Google for “auto transport quotes”, “car transport rates”, or “car shipping quotes” and checkout various auto transport company websites. Get quotes from individual companies, or comparison sites and compare rates. You can check the company’s track record on sites like Transport Reviews.



Source by Jay Sweeny

Used Auto Parts – Craigslist Versus Pick and Pull Junkyards

When many vehicle owners need car, truck, van, RV, or jeep parts, they usually turn to their local junkyard. Many of these junk yards have a pick and pull policy. Meaning, you can buy the part for cheap, but you must find that part yourself and remove it from the vehicle in question. Although it sounds like a lot of work, it is a great way to find cheap auto parts. Another way is visiting Craigslist.org. In fact, which is the best approach?

Unfortunately, not all junkyards in the United States sell used car parts. This is unfortunate, as these pick and pull yards have shown us that even the oldest cars and those in the worst shape still have salvageable parts. If you do not have access to one of these auto establishments, it is best to visit Craigslist.org. To get started, select your state and then the nearest city. Browse or search the website to find car, truck, van, RV, or jeep parts.

One of the many benefits to using Craigslist to find cheap car accessories is the search function. You don’t have to spend hours sifting through a junkyard to find what you need. Instead, you sit at home on your computer and perform a search. To find the best deals and what you need, search with targeted phrases. Search with the make, model, or part you need. For example, Honda Civic fenders, Mercedes hubcaps, Geo Tracker door, Dodge Ram tailgate, and so forth.

At most pick and pull auto yards, you are charged a set price for each part. This is good if you only need one or two items. However, many buyers want to have an entire junk car on hand for parts in the future. At an established auto yard, this can cost you thousands of dollars or more. On Craigslist.org you are likely to find better prices. You may get a junk car for as little as $100! These cars don’t run and the seller doesn’t want to bother with needed repairs, so they sell the vehicle as a junk car and sell it for next to nothing. The only downside is you may need to rent or borrow a car trailer to tow it home.



Source by Adnan Masood

Which Costa Rican Car Company Is Best?

Renting a Car in Costa Rica? Which company should you choose?

There are so many rent-a-car companies to choose from in Costa Rica – from the large international firms to the smaller national agencies. Reviews on the internet invariably either damn or sing the praises of each company to the extent of being almost useless. So how do you choose the best place to hire a car for your trip?

Many tourists that rent vehicles in Costa Rica complain that they have been ripped off when they realize the extra cost of insurance they are obliged to pay or that they have been charged a dollar rate that reflected the currency rate and not the quoted rate. Understanding the insurance laws and charges that bind the Costa Rican car rental companies may help you to ask the right questions when you are reserving your vehicle and avoid a nasty shock upon arrival. If a company is not upfront about its additional costs; you may wish to consider whether it is a company that you choose to take your business to.

I have worked within the tourism industry in Costa Rica for the last six years and have lived here since 2000. I am familiar with the feelings that many visitors to the country experience when dealing with rent-a-car companies. These can range from delight to discomfort to outright fury; sometimes due to the inefficiency, or even dishonesty of the rental agency, but also due to the renter’s lack of understanding of the legally binding restrictions within which Costa Rican car rental firms must work. I hope that while this article won’t guarantee you trouble-free vehicle rental; it might make you a more knowledgeable customer.

Insurance needs, additional costs in rental and surcharges are considered in more detail below:

Insurance:

Basic insurance is mandatory. Costa Rican law is very clear on this and your rental car company cannot allow you to leave with their car without having agreed to pay it. Expect to pay somewhere between $9 and $20 per day on top of your car rental rate. An honest, car rental agency will make this very clear in their pricing. If it is not clear whether the insurance is included in the rental cost; ask for clarification and be aware of other potentially unstated costs.

Check whether your insurance policy covers you to drive in Costa Rica. Some policies include Collision Damage Waivers and will cover Central America. If you are covered, bring proof (in writing) for your vehicle rental company. If not, consider whether you would be safer to pay the extra cost of this additional coverage. This part is not mandatory.

Zero liability is offered by rent-a-car companies. You may wish to consider whether you would feel more at ease knowing that you would not be liable for any costs should something occur while you are renting their vehicle. You are not obliged to buy this supplemental insurance.

Additional Fees:

Many car rental companies will charge additional fees for a child/baby seat, an additional driver, luggage racks or cooler. You can expect to pay up to $8 daily for each of these extras. Although by shopping around, you can find companies that will offer some or all for a lower price, or even free.

With Costa Rican roads being notoriously poorly signposted and the whole country operating on an address system based on landmarks rather than road names or numbers, a GPS is essential for many car renters. You will usually pay between $8 and $15 a day for this service. It is fairly common practice to allow renters to use one of their cell phones for the duration, but if you wish to use it for your own calls; you’ll obviously be charged.

Surcharges:

Some rental car companies incorporate taxes and additional fees into their rental cost; others don’t. Make sure you know what you will be charged for on top of your rental fee. Airport fees can be charged at 13% of your rental cost which is a sizable fee to pay in addition to an agreed rental charge. You may also be charged a license plate charge, environmental fee and/or any other charge that the rental car company has to meet (or pocket).

Prices for the rental will be given in US dollars, but as the local currency is colones, you should understand that exchange rates change daily and what you are charged on your credit card on the day of payment may vary slightly from what you were quoted.

Criteria for Rating Car Rental Companies:

For this article, three (3) main points were considered for each company:

1) Value: Is the rental rate competitive?

2) Efficiency: How fast do they respond to the needs of the client?

3) Transparency: How clear is the information …

What Is an AGO Oil Product or Automatic Gas Oil? Finding Authentic AGO Petroleum Supply/Supplier

A recent survey conducted by this writer on the Internet for a quick, snap shot sense of the subject matter, immediately revealed that there’s a state of relatively scanty knowledge of, or information about, this particular refined petroleum product called the AGO, among international oil dealers and suppliers. In deed, in one rather remarkable instance involving a popular ‘Ask for Answers’ online discussion portal, one reader expressly posited the question, soliciting information from the readers as to what is/was ‘the meaning’ of the petroleum term AGO, among three other refined petroleum products, which he went on to list – DPK, PMS, JET A1. There was just one response – a response that has stood the same for 5 years since. Oddly enough, however, of the 4 oil products that the answerer named, the answerer was exactly accurate in the definition he proffered on three of those. But, on ONLY one of them, the AGO product, the answer given by the answerer was somewhat slightly off, as he gave the definition of the product as meaning ‘Automotive Gas & Oils.’

So, first, we start with this basic question: What is AGO Oil Product, or the Automotive Gas Oil?

What the AGO Oil Product Is

The term AGO, which specifically stands for the Automotive Gas Oil, is the name given to the fuel type that’s used by road vehicles (cars, trucks, buses, vans, and the like) that are powered by DIESEL engines. That is, in a word, it is the diesel vehicle engine fuel. In terms of how the fuel gets to be produced or manufactured, the fuel is the type that, in the distillation and processing of crude oil work, is obtained in the mid-boiling range of that process. Related fuels which are used for non-road applications including off-road diesel engines, such as the Industrial Gas Oils (IGOs), are obtained from the same ‘fraction’ of the crude oil barrel.

Technically speaking, the term Automotive Gas Oil (AGO) is the technical name used by the oil industry in describing this particular fuel. However, in terms of the ordinary consumers in the market, the term ‘automotive diesel fuel,’ or just plain ‘diesel,’ is the more commonly used and more widespread name that the ordinary consumer uses in describing this fuel. Petroleum products are usually grouped into THREE categories: the ‘light distillates’ (LPG, gasoline, naphtha), the ‘middle’ distillates (kerosene, diesel), and the ‘heavy’ distillates and residuum (heavy fuel oil, lubricating oils, wax, asphalt). This classification is based primarily on the way crude oil is distilled and separated into fractions (called distillates and residuum). Within the oil industry, the generic oil industry name that’s used to describe gasoils – which include both AGO and IGO – fall under the ‘Middle Distillates’ category, meaning those kinds of refined oil products whose ‘boiling range’ fall in the MIDDLE, that is, between those whose range fall in the higher levels or in the lower levels. (See the Chart below). As you can readily see in the Chart below, at a Boiling Range of between 520 to 650, the AGO falls right in the middle range of most categories of the refined oil products.

The Market & Primary Uses of the AGO oil Product Among Its Customers

AGO is used in two main types of vehicles: 1) the heavy-duty vehicles, such as trucks and buses, and 2) the light-duty vehicles, such as vans and passenger cars. In most countries, including the USA as well as the developing countries, the heavy-duty vehicles make up the bulk of the market for AGO. In a country such as Japan, there is a significant light-duty vehicle sector, but it is in Europe that the demand for AGO from this sector is highest, with more than one-third coming from the passenger cars and other light vehicles. Customer requirements between the two types of fuel usage differ to some extent. Diesel engines are widely used in heavy-duty vehicles. Such vehicles are frequently operated in fleets and are re-fuelled centrally with the fuel delivered directly from the supplier. In the light-duty vehicle sector, recent advances in engine design now also allow light-duty diesel engines to compete with gasoline engines in terms of the performance standards. Light-duty vehicles are generally re-fuelled through retail outlets. In any case, whether it is in the light-duty sector or in the heavy-duty sector, in both sectors the customer will generally be looking for the fuel that provides economy, power, reliability and environmental acceptability.

Use As Car Fuel

Diesel-powered vehicles, such as AGO-powered vehicles, generally have a better fuel economy than equivalent gasoline engines and produce less greenhouse gas emission. Their greater economy is due to the higher energy per-liter content of diesel fuel and the intrinsic efficiency of the diesel engine. True, petrodiesel’s higher density results in higher …

Buying a Car From a New Car Dealer If You Have Bad Credit

It may seem like an intimidating prospect, but if you have a little knowledge about your situation, buying your next car is not as daunting a task as it may seem.

When searching for a dealer for your next vehicle purchase it is important to realize that not all dealers are created equal. Sure every Chevy dealer sells the same cars, however, different dealers have different finance sources and this makes all the difference to the credit challenged customer.

I advise choosing a dealer who often advertises its ability to help customers with credit issues. This dealer likely has a large number of finance sources for these customers.

When you go to the dealership don’t hide the fact that you have credit issues. You will be asked to fill out a credit application so the finance department can submit your information to its finance companies to see who will offer you the most favorable terms. Don’t be afraid to ask which finance companies your dealer is submitting your information to. Write these down, you may want them later.

It may be anywhere from a few minutes to a few hours or more before the finance manager knows if he will be able to get you approved for financing. If they send you home, use the time to research some of the finance companies that you have applied with. You may find negative reports about a finance company and decide that you would not want your car financed with them.

When a finance company is considering your application they look at several items including your credit score, time on the job, income, time at residence, debt to income ratio, and cash downpayment. All finance companies have different formulas on determining credit risk.

Once the dealer receives a credit approval you will be invited in to view cars that will fit within the lenders guidelines. If the dealer only shows you three or four cars and you are not satisfied with your options, don’t be afraid to ask for more vehicles to choose from. Usually the dealers will have a few other vehicles that may also work.

If you decide to purchase a car, the finance manager will present you with loan closing documents. Pay attention and read these documents carefully. Ask questions as they arise. Don’t hesitate to stop the finance manager and ask him to repeat or explain something. Pay particular attention to the Truth in Lending disclosures on your retail contract. Here you will see the interest rate and the total amount of interest charges expressed as a dollar amount.

If you decide not to do business with the dealer, don’t leave the dealership without finding out which finance companies approved your application. Armed with this knowledge you can go to other dealers who deal with the same finance company and already know that you are approved.

With these simple guidelines purchasing a car form a New Car Dealer with bad credit can be less intimidating. If you need more information or have questions check out your local dealer, or consult an auto finance expert.



Source by Aaron Hershey

How Cars Have Evolved

Do you ever just look at cars and wonder how they got to the point of beauty they are at now? They have come a long way since the very beginning and it’s good thing for future generations.

It’s surprising to think that the first car or automobile designed only had one cylinder. Can you imagine how slow that is compared to the cars we have now? Not to mention how much fuel consumption it might have taken due to the heavy materials.

Most of the cars designed before the WWII era were steam powered and incredibly huge. That was the time when they discovered internal combustion. It’s odd to think that the cars available to us now have the engine neatly packed into a small area of the car.

Although, they improved the earlier cars to be lightweight, they still had a few problems that would not work in the present. The wheels used to be very thin and seemed to struggle under the strain on the car. They were also top heavy so it wouldn’t won’t work well with all weather conditions. This is probably the reason why so many cars had become convertibles or had roofless mechanical systems.

Before the war they also started manufacturing cars with larger engines. This is understandable since tanks had also started becoming the major projects for automobile companies.

Another interesting aspect about the older models is that they didn’t have indicators on the sides of the car. In those days, not many people owned a car so indicating which direction you were going wasn’t a big concern on the roads.

It’s easy to find a car now that is light in weight and doesn’t consume too much power or fuel. As we have evolved so has science thus allowing us to find easier ways to live life to the maximum.

Although, not all inventions and models of cars have been smart in terms of economy.

Cars with more cylinders are likely to consumer more fuel. You often see a model with a 2.6 litre V-8 with a turbo engine. This is how much fuel your car consumes once its gone through the ignition and compression cycle of the pistons. It starts again once the gases go through the outlet. It may be uneconomical but it sure is exhilarating to drive a car that has power. However, for economical purposes the hybrid car was created. The forces and movement that power this type of car charge the electrical component in case you run out of gas.

Another type of vehicle that causes havoc to our roads but is essential for logistics are trucks. This simply due to their weight and excessive carbon emissions. But there are advancements in this area that could change the future of trucking.

Wheels and tyres have always been dynamic when it comes to automobiles. Some things that have been improved are the type of rubber used, the treading and the depth. Technology has been a great friend to us when it comes to automobiles.



Source by Morne Lourens

Importance of Turbocharger in a Vehicle

A good running vehicle is what most car owners would like to have especially if it is needed for their job. Police cars are examples of vehicles that need to be fast and always in great condition so they can catch criminals and respond to calls the fastest possible time. Now, for this reason, there are many vehicle accessories that can help speed up your unit, add more power and make it run more smoothly. A turbocharger is one of the most important accessories for your vehicle. Turbochargers can increase your engine power as much as 35% compared to having no turbocharger.

All vehicles whether it is run by diesel or gasoline must have a turbocharger in their engine. The turbocharger helps increase engine horsepower. Usually, a single turbocharger is used for diesel engine while two turbochargers are used for gasoline engine and it commonly referred to as twin turbo.

The main function of turbocharger is to increase the amount of air intake needed by the engine for better fuel combustion. It is actually connected on the exhaust manifold of the unit which is made of two kinds of impeller separated by a chamber. As the exhaust manifold releases air, it actually rotates the impeller of the turbo charger in the exhaust manifold side and since the two impeller of the turbo is directly coupled together, the impeller on the other end which is directly connected to the intake manifold would eventually turn itself adding air in the combustion process.

Turbocharger impellers rotate almost 3000 rpm and because of this it is prone to overheat just like the engine itself. There are two cooling processes done for turbo chargers to prevent overheat, the first is by using oil lubricants and the second one is through combination of water and oil lubricants. In oil lubricants, the turbo charger is regularly fed by engine oil through a steel pipe directly connected to the main engine. It cools down the turbo charger by lubricating its rotating parts which is the impellers and because of this it easily cools down itself. The combination of water and oil, it is usually used on large turbo charger, because engine oil is sometime not enough to cool down the turbo. A connection directly connected to the water passage way of the engine is connected and passes through the turbo to cool it.

One way of maintaining the good condition of your turbo charger is by ensuring that there clean engine oil is always present. You should also regularly check for any leak or damage in its connection. Avoid engine revolution especially when you have just started your engine. Owners have experienced turbo charger problem when they turn on their engine and run their car without allowing it to heat up especially on a cold weather. The usual turbo damage is mostly in the impeller itself because it is usually broke down into pieces when damaged. Now the most important thing to maintain the turbo in good condition besides checking its cooling system is by avoiding early engine revolution. It is also best to start the engine and wait until it reaches a designated temperature before running your vehicle.



Source by Thomas Glickman

Find the Free Auto Repair Manual You Need Online

You can easily get a free auto repair manual for whichever repair need you might have. You need an internet access and have to follow a certain procedure searching for auto repair manuals, but when you have done this procedure a few times it will be very easy to find the right instructions for do it yourself auto repair and it won’t cost you a dime.

There are four types of automotive description documents that you will need to choose from when you want to do a repair;

  • General manuals
  • Diagnosis descriptions
  • Repair manuals
  • Maintenance manuals

General Manuals

In addition to some general manuals, most of these are related to the make. Here you can get step by step guidance on how to repair most of the makes in the vehicle market. Let’s say you have a Honda Acura 2002 model and you want to find a manual for that make and model. What you do is perform the following search in a search engine: “free car manuals+Honda Acura+2002”. Then you will have a long list of sites that provide you with all kinds of descriptions for your Honda Acure 2002 model, and you can choose what you want.

Diagnosis descriptions

Automotive diagnosis manuals can also be sub-divided by make and model. But it can also be divided by the area of the vehicle that is affected, for example engine intake problems, brake problems, cooling problems, exhaust problems, start or stall problems, transmission problems etc. Let’s say you have a start problem. Your search would be “car diagnosis manual+ start problem”, then you should get more than enough repair information to choose from. You can even get diagnostic trees where all options are covered for nothing.

You have probably more than one time heard some annoying noise from somewhere in your vehicle, without finding the source of it. This is one of the most kinky situations to run into because you don’t know if it is a serious signal or just a small thing. Some websites gives you the opportunity to diagnose vehicle problems by the noise, sound and vibrating signals – and that is great. The sooner you find it the sooner you can fix it and then you can relax. When you search, you can describe the sound, for example “whine noise” or “shifter knocks” or “driveline vibration” plus car diagnosis manual plus eventually the make.

Repair Manuals

In addition to regular manuals you can also get very instructive and detailed descriptions in other internet document or websites like articles, etc. The natural way to sub-divide such repairs before searching, is by the area of the vehicle that is going to be repaired, for instance body repair, exhaust repair, suspension fix, interior repair and even general car repair.

You do the search the same way as above; “car repair manual (or description) + the area of repair and go through the list of resources you get.

Maintenance manuals

Though vehicle maintenance is closely related to your vehicle make and model, there are some maintenance issues that are pretty much common whether you have a Cadillac, VW or a Mercedes, for example changing oil, changing air filters, engine wash, fluid maintenance, tier maintenance etc. You can get access to maintenance descriptions by searching for the kind of maintenance plus “car maintenance manual (or description)” plus eventually your make and model.

I think you’ll be amazed of the amount of automotive repair free stuff online.



Source by Terje Ellingsen

How Much Does a Rear End Car Accident Cost?

If you were involved in a rear end car accident then you are probably wondering what this is going to cost you. If you don’t have car insurance, then you are looking to pay anywhere from a couple hundred dollars to over $1000. Keep reading this article to get an idea what your rear end accident might cost you.

In a rear end car accident you will certainly damage the bumper, the tail lights, the rear sidewalls, trunk cover and even the window. It depends on how severe the accident was. If you have car insurance then you might end up paying nothing since your insurer will have you covered for this accident. If you don’t have car insurance then here are the costs you could be looking at.

Bumper – If the damage was isolated to just the bumper. You could be looking at a bill anywhere from $300 to $800. It depends on the type of car your hit. The cheaper the car, the cheaper the cost to replace or fix. If you hit a Mercedes, Lexus or other luxury car, then you are looking at the high end of that price range.

Tail Lights – If you broke the tail lights in the accident, you most likely damaged the trunk as well. The costs for replacing the tail lights alone can run you anywhere from $100 to $300. If the taillight simply covers the corner of the car, then you are on the low end of that price range. If you broke a tail light that is the wide kind, these are most expensive to replace and you will be paying the high price range noted above.

From just those two costs you can see why you are better off paying for car insurance than driving without it.

Rear Side Walls – There are the wides of the car that are on the rear. These tend to bend when you hit from the back. So damage will be present in the bumper and the sidewalls. These can cost you anywhere from $400 to $900 to replace, each!

Trunk Cover – If you the trunk bent or became dented, then you are responsible for it. These cost anywhere from $300 to $600. They can typically be repaired. If you a repair is only needed they you could pay as little as $100.

Rear Window – If you broke the rear window you are looking at costs from $100 to $300. If the rear window doesn’t have a defroster in it, then you will end up paying the cheaper $100 price. If the rear window has a defroster embedded in it, and if the window was tinted and had a car antenna embedded then you will pay the much higher price close to $300.

You could also be facing medical costs. If the person had neck whiplash, you will be responsible for their hospital bills. If you had car insurance your premium may increase. It depends on who is your insurance carrier.



Source by Oscar Wilde

What Is Inside a Model Rocket Engine?

Before we even begin to explain what is inside a model rocket engine, it must be stressed that you should never try to disassemble one, because they contain a propellant that is highly flammable and, once that propellant has been removed from the engine casing, it can be very easily ignited.

It is also not advisable for anyone to try to make their own engines, unless they are 100% sure that they know what they are doing. Some expert enthusiasts do make their own rockets and engines, but it is much safer for the amateur to stick with mass-produced model rocket kits and engines.

In the early days, before Vern Estes invented Mable, the very first machine for mass producing model rocket engines, early enthusiasts made their own motors, which led quite a lot of accidents, some of which were fatal. Fortunately, today, engines for model rockets are widely available and they are very affordable.

The most common type of propulsion unit is the single-use, solid propellant type of motor. Here are the components of a standard model rocket engine.

Casing

The casing is a simple tube made out of strong cardboard. Cardboard is used because it is cheap, strong and it is lightweight.

Nozzle

At the rear end of an engine, you will find the nozzle, which is usually made of clay or a ceramic material. The nozzle compresses the hot exhaust gasses as they are powered through it by the propellant, and that is what creates the thrust that will lift the rocket off the ground. Clay or ceramics are used for the nozzle, so that it can withstand the high temperature of the exhaust gasses.

Propellant

In most standard rocket motors, the propellant that is used is black powder. When the propellant is ignited by electric igniter, or starter, it burns from the bottom up, expelling the thrust-creating exhaust. Black powder is made from sulphur, charcoal, and potassium nitrate. In the larger types of engines, a composite propellant is used, which is usually made of ammonium perchlorate, aluminium powder and a rubber-like binding material.

Delay Charge

Once the propellant has been used up, the delay charge, which is situated immediately on top of the propellant, will be ignited. At this point in the flight a model rocket will just be coasting and the delay charge will be emitting smoke and flame, but it will not be creating any thrust. The length of time that the delay charge burns will be about 3 to 8 seconds.

Ejection charge

Once the delay charge has burned through to the top, it will ignite the ejection charge. The ejection charge is what will blow the nose cone off of the top of the casing and then the recovery system will be deployed, which is usually a parachute. When the ejection charge ignites, hot gasses are expelled, which is why recovery wadding is used to protect the recovery system from damage.

A modern model rocket engine is perfectly safe to handle and to use and, if stored properly it will last for a long time too. It’s thanks to Vern Estes and his machine called Mable that we can now all enjoy flying model rockets safely.



Source by Neil Savin

How Significant Car Insurance Quotes Are

Planning to buy car insurance is really just easy but the situation is how to select the correct company. Some people have no single idea regarding how to do it while some are simply confused on which among the businesses should they go for. A lot of companies are there too which provides assorted interest rates. So the smartest thing to accomplish here is to collect lots of auto insurance quotes so it is also possible to match them. This way, choosing probably the most perfect insurance policy for the car could be done smoothly.

The best venue for clients get started on with these auto insurance quotes is nowhere else than the internet. A lot of insurance firms have created their websites which give and explains important information that revolves around their insurance policies. In order that you can lessen the doubts, you need to visit online companies that have reigned success for consecutive years. It is vital to choose those who have gained popularity and whose reliability will not disappoint you. Definitely they really are the safest and most perfect choices for auto insurance.

Once you visit their websites, it is also possible to come upon a web based insurance quote form that you are required to fill out in order that getting your quote from the company will likely be done. All you should do would be to type in some essential information that talks about yourself such us your name, address, etc. Right after filling out the form, the auto insurance quote will show up in a blink.

Aside from making use of the internet to know your auto insurance quotes, it is also possible to get them through approaching a good car insurance company. This step obviously requires you to exert effort making sure that requesting for the quote shall be done. Just exactly the same as what you are likely to do in the internet, you are likely to fill out a vehicle insurance quote form and supply some basic information. You will receive your quote once the company will post it. However, gathering car insurance quotes with the use of such step is indeed time consuming and you may not have the capacity to gather a lot. That is the main reason why the majority prefer to go online as compared with exerting too much effort without even getting assured.

You have to be aware of that vehicle insurance policies are not guaranteed by any auto insurance quotes. It only provides the chance to get an estimate with regards the car insurance policy. Gathering quotes gives you the chance to check them and you are required to select the very best among the businesses which provide the best interest rates.



Source by Joy Sheila

Car Insurance – Watch Out Before You Buy!

What to watch out for while choosing car insurance?

The most important criteria include the five “C”s. Here’s a brief description of each:

Claim settlement policy – The true test of an insurance company is at the time of an actual insurance claim. This is possible to check by looking at the company’s past records of claim resolution. Now is the time to check if the existing insurance can be transferred to another insurance company without loss of benefits already paid for.

Coverage – What is the right coverage for you? Usually, car insurance policies cover third party liability and own damage. According to the Motor Vehicles Act, it is mandatory to opt for third party liability insurance cover while own damage is optional. Opting for both is the standard procedure since they cover any damage due to accidents and loss from third party mishaps. Most insurance companies offer “add-ons” with the basic policy.

Customer service – Thanks to technology, insurance policies are now issued instantly. Besides this, other issues such as changes in policy or cancellations are processed quickly. In the event of a claim, cashless settlement is also available so that post-repair delivery is quick without incurring bills at the workshop. It is therefore important to check the insurance company’s network for this facility. The bigger the network, the better the claimant’s options.

Communication access – The insurance company’s contact information must be easily accessible. If there is a problem the insured individual must know whom to get in touch with and the procedure to follow.

Cost – Last but not least, is the price or premium. Car insurance premium is based on “insured declared value” or IDV and the rate multiplier and depends on the car model, the age of the car, daily mileage and the terrain of the location. It is important to declare the right IDV and select a policy that offers the maximum IDV even if you have to incur a slightly higher premium.

Besides the above, the following are the benefits to look for:

No claim bonus – if no claim has been filed during the insurance period, a no-claim discount is offered on risk cover against own damage at the time of policy renewal. For each consecutive claim-free year, the discount increases progressively. The point to note is that the no claim bonus eligibility holds good even in the event of a new vehicle purchase or existing insurance renewal before the due date from a different insurance provider.

Opting for deductible – Drivers with a good record can opt for “voluntary excess” or deductible to lower their premium payments, in addition to the compulsory excess. In the case of a compulsory excess, the insured is liable to pay a specific amount if a claim is filed.

Premium based on car type – If your car has extra security features such as anti-theft alarms the chances of theft is lower and insurance can come at a lower premium.

Timely insurance renewal – If car insurance is not renewed before the expiry date the renewal premium can result in loss of coverage especially if there is an accident and also mean no discount for the no-claim bonus.

Choice of Add-ons– Besides the basic car insurance coverage, insurance providers offer several optional add-ons. It is important to select the right ones and only pay for those. For example, if there is a medical expense cover or hospital cash cover, check to see if you have a medical insurance policy that already covers these.

To renew or not to renew – with the same insurance provider? When it is time to renew your car insurance, compare insurance providers to see what they are offering before making a decision. The car insurance industry is very competitive and for the same coverage, you can probably get a better price elsewhere.

Some final precautions to bear in mind are:

• Check that the insurance policy is genuine. Always buy your car insurance directly from the insurance company or from its authorized agent.

• Always get a premium payment receipt.

• When you receive your policy document, check the IDV, no claim bonus and deductible details to make sure it is what you opted for. Any discrepancies must be notified and rectified immediately.

• Make sure only you sign the proposal form and always read before signing

• Do not opt for monthly payments as this is more expensive than annual payments

Remember that car insurance protects you and the occupants of your car on two counts: from accidental damage and from third party claims when you are responsible for the accident. Therefore, choose with care.



Source by Krishan Dwivedi

The Bonavita Cabana Crib

The Cabana Bonavita Crib Collection comes with classic, elegant styling that’s been crafted to the highest standards. It’s convertible, which means it will grow as your child grows. The Cabana will be the very heart of your child’s nursery.

Bonavita cribs are a subsidiary of LaJobi Industries – an Italian company that has been making nursery furniture for over 15 years. They have a well established reputation of makers of fine infant furniture, bringing together both quality materials and craftsmanship.

The company only uses the finest hard woods. The most preferred is European beech wood. Beech is preferred because it is naturally hard wearing, is easily worked with and stains well. The company also uses spruce and rubber wood; rubber wood is liked because it isn’t prone to warping. Yellow birch wood is sometimes used as is Cherry (an expensive wood but with an unmatched reddish brown hue).

The company currently makes 3-in-1 and lifetime cribs: it calls its collection of lifetime cribs ‘LifeStyle’. The LifeStyle collection will accommodate your child as they grow; each is convertible and changes from crib, to toddler bed, day bed, to full size bed complete with headboard and footboard. The Cabana is a lifetime crib.

The Bonavita Cabana has a timeless, classic design reminiscent of Caribbean days of long ago. It looks solid but its gentle curvaceous lines give it a lighter look and feel. There is a simple carved panel on the footboard that matches the carved detail on the top rail of the headboard. The sturdy look is reinforced with the use of rounded, pear-shaped feet. The slats are simple and unadorned and are on all four sides. The fluted legs are a real eye catcher and give the crib an old-fashioned look.

The Cabana comes in either Antique White or Montego Brown. The Montego Brown is a very rich color that has a real depth to it. The dimensions are 33″w x 60″l x 48″.

What’s good about this crib from Bonavita is that the guard rail is included. This isn’t usual with other brands. Unfortunately, the headboard post attachments, bed rails and mattress are sold separately, so you’re going to have to pay more on what is already an expensive piece of furniture. However, buying the additional items will save you money in the long term as this still works out cheaper than buying toddler and full size beds separately.

Other collections of Bonavita cribs include the Chadwick, the Heritage, Hudson, Sheffield and Peyton. The Bonavita Nikki crib is the latest offering. It’s another sturdy looking piece of nursery furniture that’s been built to last. It comes in two unusual finishes of Butterscotch and Blackberry; the checker board design on the headboard is an eye-catching piece of design.

The Bonavita Cabana is nice but is there anything to be said against it? Well, it is expensive. You can buy other brands of convertible cribs for less and, in all honesty, they’re just as well made and come in an array of finishes and designs. Personally, I like the Cabana a lot, but whether you choose to buy one or another brand will come down to your taste in design. Many people prefer more modern styles of crib and, for some its overall look will be too ‘heavy’ or too ‘stylized’.

But if you’re looking for something that evokes a long gone exotic time and place, the Bonavita Cabana crib may be the perfect choice.



Source by Robin Cassidy

Types and Consequences of Copyright Infringement

By simply reproducing or syndicating the creations of a copyright owner without the permission to do so, you’ll probably be ignoring his or her legal rights as stated in the Copyright Act. To enable a copyright to be enforced, it must be registered with the United States Copyright Office, plus a complaint explaining the encroachment has to be lodged by the federal court.

A judge can issue an injunction to permanently cease any sort of efforts it views as infringement. This will prevent the offending person or entity from sustained use of or money from acts of copyright infringement. A court can also issue a temporary injunction to counteract some other act of infringement while the court makes the final ruling on whether encroachment has happened.

At any moment over a copyright infringement case, the judge can request the impounding of content that could be perceived as encroaching on a copyright. Law enforcement agents will the be able to seize all of the copies of the offending products in addition to the initial designs from which more copies can easily be produced. With a finding of infringement, a court can demand that the seized items get removed or eliminated.

If the copyright holder has recorded the effort through the United States Copyright Office ahead of the infringement, the copyright holder may sue for reimbursement. This might include damages that include lost sales and profits due to the infringement or legal fines between $250 to $150,000 for each and every copy. Even bigger payments may be awarded based upon the circumstances of your case, and the public popularity of the copyrighted content.

You can also be considered criminally responsible if you purposely reproduce copyrighted content for profit, or if the replicated original carries a worth of greater than one-thousand dollars. In these cases, implications range from a one-year jail term plus fines. If the worth is greater than $2,500, you’re likely to be obligated to fulfill 5 years in prison plus fines. Jail fees and penalties mostly apply to far-reaching instances of video or music piracy, but any instance of copyright violation should be given serious attention, for the reason that final results are often serious. Consult a knowledgeable copyright law firm for answers to your queries or for representation.



Source by Greg L Stevens